Fluid mechanics is a branch of classical physics concerned with the mechanics of fluids (liquids, gases and plasmas) and the forces on them. It has a wide range of applications, including mechanical engineering, civil engineering, chemical engineering, biomedical engineering, geophysics, astrophysics, meteorology and biology. It can be divided into fluid statics (or hydrostatics, the study of fluids at rest) and fluid dynamics (the study of the effect of forces on fluid motion). Fluid mechanics, especially fluid dynamics, is an active field of research with many problems that are partly or wholly unsolved; it can be solved by numerical methods, typically using computers. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is a modern discipline, devoted to this approach to solving fluid mechanics problems. Hydrostatics is fundamental to hydraulics, the engineering for storing, transporting and using fluids. Fluid mechanics provides the theoretical foundation for hydraulics, which focuses on the applied engineering using the properties of fluids. In its fluid power applications, hydraulics is used for the generation, control, and transmission of power by the use of pressurized liquids. Hydraulic topics range through some parts of science and most of engineering modules, and cover concepts such as pipe flow, dam design, fluidics and fluid control circuitry, pumps. Free surface hydraulics is the branch of hydraulics dealing with free surface flow, such as occurring in rivers, canals, lakes and seas. Its sub-field open-channel flow studies the flow in open channels. For this field, De Lorenzo has designed a wide range of applications to allow to study and to practice with the basic principles of hydraulics. All the trainers rely to a main hydraulic bench (suggested for all as a necessary accessory) suitable to use as a working bench composed of two volumetric tanks of different sizes, a pump and flow measurements. The applications range over a huge part of the hydraulics such as the study of flow over a weir, losses in pipes, piping circuits, Bernoulli’s theorem demonstration, cavitation phenomenon, water hammer, jet impact, flow through orifices, orifice and free jet flow, free and forced vortices, miniature channel for flow visualization, friction in pipes, secondary loss of load, energy losses in bends, study of flowmeters, study of flow networks, fluid statics and pressure measurement, centrifugal pump, Osborne-Reynold’s demonstration apparatus, series parallel pumps, hydraulic flow channel demonstrator, Pelton turbine, Francis turbine, Kaplan turbine and propeller turbine. All the latter four turbines are equipped with a brake friction type. Some of the previous trainers can also run with an autonomous portable and economic unit of hydraulic power group instead of the hydraulic bench mentioned above. They are recommended for professional institutes, vocational schools and technical colleges.

The DL DKL 014 is an hydraulic equipment suitable to use as a working bench. A great variety of didactic devices can be used by mounting them on the tabletop.

The bench is composed of two volumetric tanks of different sizes to accurately measure high and low flows.

The upper reservoir has a 40 liter capacity and the lower one can hold up to 100 liter.

In order to precisely measuring flow, the higher tank has a short interval flow meter adjusted to 0 – 8 liter and for larger flows 0-40 liter it has a longer interval adjustment.

A sump tank with cover is provided in order to prevent water from dust and possible dirt particles.

The bench also includes an interchangeable length of segment to hook up along many accessories.

**SCOPE OF EXPERIMENTS**

• Calibration of a volumetric tank

• Flow measurement with volumetric tank

**TECHNICAL DATA**

Pump features:

- Maximum gauge head: 23 MWC - Volume 10 / 160 l/min - H 21 / 10 MWC

- Power consumption: 750 W (1HP)

- Motor speed: 2.900 rpm

Tanks:

- Sump tank capacity: 100 liters

- Level measurement by vertical gauges and sight tubes.

-Vertical manometers for level measurements and calibrated level meters

Volumetric tanks storage capacity:

- From 0-8 liters

- From 0-40 liters

PROVIDED WITH:

Data acquisition system and software.

Requirements:

Power supply: 230V / 50Hz

**DL DKL014**

It consists of some weir plates of different shapes that can be coupled to the surface channel of the DL DKL014 - Hydraulics Bench (not included).

The height of the upstream weir plate is measured by an inclined manometer connected by a tube to the channel bottom.

**TRAINING OBJECTIVES**

Study and use of thin weir plates for flow measurement:

• Rectangular weir plate without contraction

• Rectangular weir plate with lateral contraction

• Triangular weir plate

**TECHNICAL DATA**

- Rectangular weir plate without contraction.

- Rectangular weir plate with lateral contraction: length 50mm x 100mm height.

- Triangular weir plate: 90°, 100mm height.

- Height measuring system with 0.1 mm precision.

- Maximum water flow: 100 liters/min.

- Inclined manometer with a bubble level for water level reading.

- Baffle for sloshing reduction.

**Necessary accessory:**

**DL DKL-014 – Hydraulic bench**

The basic hydraulic bench is a simple, mobile, self contained module that allows a supply of "hydraulic energy", i.e. an accurately controlled and measurable flow of water.

It includes two collecting tanks, a centrifugal pump, a flowmeter, a mobile frame work on wheels, a set of valves and piping.

**DL DKL012 **

This training equipment has been designed for the study of friction losses in pipes and losses in hydraulic elements such as: valves, metering elements, accessories, etc.

This trainer has been designed to be very flexible, so it allows to hook up new accessories and straight segments of pipes of different materials and roughness.

The piping replacing is quick and simple by using quick fittings.

The user just has to remove the desired segment by unscrewing it and fix another one.

At the bottom of the panel, the trainer has a dripping pan, to collect the residual water that could remain in the piping, keeping the working area and adjacent components dry.

Cleaning labor could be done by students at the end of each practice.

In order to avoid water leaks, the trainer has ecological pressure taps, so during connection or disconnections, they will not cause water losses since they are self-sealing.

This equipment can be attached to the hydraulic bench or to the hydraulic group with flow meter.

**TRAINING OBJECTIVES**

• Measure and check of main pressure losses in straight segments of many kinds of pipes.

Possibility to test pressure losses in:

- Two different inner diameter pipes: 21.2 and 13.6mm

- Different materials testing.

• The proof of relation between pressure losses and speed flow in a pipe.

• Roughness measurement in pipes:

- Galvanized steel

- Cooper

- Etc.

• Measurement and check of secondary pressure losses in installation components. Possibility to test pressure losses in:

- Short radius 90° elbow

- Large radius 90° elbow o 45° elbow

- Tee o Bent tee

- Abrupt reduction

- Abrupt widening

- Smooth reduction

- Plug valve

- Check valve

- Seat valve

- Ball valve

- Diaphragm valve

- Diaphragm

- Venturi pipe

- Rotameter

- Filter

- Etc.

• Determination of loss Coefficient “K” corresponding to each component listed above.

• Utilization, determination and tare of many metering elements such as:

- Rotameter

- Venturi pipe

- Diaphragms: inner diameter 15mm and 13mm

- Flow meter valve

- Etc.

• Working pressure tests along the installation

• Employment of some kinds of pressure gauges

- Water column

- Digital differential pressure gauges

- Bourdon type

• Plot of characteristic pump curve.

**TECHNICAL DATA**

Inner diameters:

• Main piping: inner diameter = 21.2mm; outer diameter = 25mm

• Reduction/ smooth widening. o Inner Ø = 13.8 mm ; outer Ø = 16mm

.
• Reduction/ abrupt widening o Inner Ø = 45.2 mm ; outer Ø = 50mm.

Pressure gauges

• Water column pressure gauge, measure range 1m water column

• Digital differential pressure gauges (± 7000mbar)

• Bourdon manometer, measure range 0 / 25m water column

Bourdon vacuum gauge, measure range -76 cm Hg / 25 m water column

Distance between pressure test points:

• For straight segments 1m distance between n° 7 and n° 14

• 0.5 m between segment n° 12

• Between measuring point and any accessory, there are 40mm, except the following cases:

* Measuring point at 135mm under o above diaphragm (3)

* Measuring point at 125mm abrupt widening upstream (9) and abrupt narrowing downstream (3).

* Measuring point at 270mm smooth widening and narrowing (4/7).

Venturi

• Constrictor inner Ø 12mm

• Pipe inner Ø 21.2mm

• Outlet cone 7°

• Inlet cone 21°

Diaphragm 15

• Constrictor inner Ø 15mm

• Pipe inner Ø 21.2mm

Diaphragm 13

• Constrictor inner Ø 13mm

• Pipe inner Ø 21.2mm

** DL DKL021**

The trainer has been designed for the study and analysis of flow through piping circuits.

The design of this module is intended to be complete and flexible, so that user can practice with several types of configurations, with the possibility to choose the grade of complexity.

The configuration setup is as simple as closing and opening valves, there is no need of installing and removing any piece of pipe or accessories.

Since there are many pressure measuring points to work with, in order to avoid leaks along the circuit, the installation features “ecological” nipple couplers, which do not leak during connection and disconnections.

This equipment is a complete solution for all kinds of configurations that can take place in the piping system from simple to complex arrangements easy to use and with virtually maintenance free.

**TRAINING OBJECTIVES**

• Study of all possible configurations of a piping system.

• Easy to rearrange, without the need of installing and removing any piece of pipe or accessories.

• Pressure measuring points with double closure mechanism upstream and downstream.

• Bourdon type, water column and digital differential pressure gauges.

Many practices and experiments are possible to realize and are listed below:

• Piping modeling.

• Calibration of each component and segment, so the user is able to determine the flow on each corresponding element.

• Measurement and testing of pressure and flow losses in a piping circuit fed at one end.

- With flow outlet

- Without flow outlet

• Measurement and testing of pressure and flow losses in a piping circuit fed on both ends.

• Measurement and testing of pressure losses and equivalent arrangement of different diameters of pipes in series.

- With 2 different diameters

- With 3 different diameters

- With 4 different diameters

• Measurement and testing of flows and pressures along different kinds of existing circuits.

- Branched circuit

- Mesh circuit

- Mixed circuit

• Employment of diaphragm as a meter element.

• Testing of working pressure along the installation.

• Employment of different kinds of pressure gauges:

- Water column

- Digital differential pressure gauge

• Bourdon type

- Manometer

- Vacuum pressure gauge

• Plot of characteristic pump curve

**TECHNICAL DATA**

• Group A pipes

- inner diameter = 21.2mm

- outer diameter = 25mm

• Group B pipes

- inner diameter = 20.6mm

- outer diameter = 22mm

• Group C pipes

- inner diameter = 13.8mm

- outer diameter = 15mm

• Group D pipes

- inner diameter = 45.2mm

- outer diameter = 50mm

Pressure test points:

• Between measuring point and any accessory there are 40mm

• The system features quick fittings with double closure.

Pressure gauges:

• Water column pressure gauge, measure range 1m water column

• Digital differential pressure gauges (± 7000mbar)

• Bourdon manometer, measure range 0 / 25m water column

• Bourdon vacuum gauge, measure range -76 cm Hg / 25 m water column

** DL DKL041**

The trainers a simple equipment to study the Bernoulli equation and its demonstration.

It features a manometer built with multiple tubes, in which it is possible to make simultaneous pressure readings along the pipe.

The hookup to the hydraulic bench (not included) is realized by a screw connection, and no tools are required. Non leaking quick fittings are available to connect pressure gauges.

**TRAINING OBJECTIVES**

• Demonstration of Bernoulli equation along the Venturi tube.

• Pressure loss calculation in a Venturi tube.

• Study of static, dynamic and total pressures

**TECHNICAL DATA**

Inner diameters:

• Main piping:

- Inner diameter = 28. 2mm

- Outer diameter = 32mm

Pressure gauges:

• Seven columns water gauge, measure range 0.6 m.

Necessary accessory:

DL DKL014 – Hydraulic bench

The basic hydraulic bench is a simple, mobile, self contained module that allows a supply of "hydraulic energy", i.e. an accurately controlled and measurable flow of water.

It includes two collecting tanks, a centrifugal pump, a flowmeter, a mobile frame work on wheels, a set of valves and piping.

**DL DKL062**

The system for the demonstration of the cavitation phenomenon is a simple and practical equipment including a Venturi tube where the cavitation phenomenon occurs when we have the depression created by the flow acceleration (Venturi effect).

The system grants great observation of the studied phenomenon because Venturi tube is made in transparent material.

The equipment also includes a pressure gauge and a vacuum gauge to measure the generated overpressure and low pressure; a membrane valve is included for precise flow control adjustments.

For the full operating of this system, it is necessary to connect the item to the hydraulic bench or to a suitable hydraulic energy source.

**TRAINING OBJECTIVES**

• Demonstration of Bernoulli's Theorem along a tube of Venturi

• Calculation of the pressure loss of a Venturi tube.

• Calibration and use of the Venturi tube as a flow meter

• Study of cavitation.

**TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION**

Inside tubes: main tube Ø inner = 21.2 mm Ø outside = 25mm

Manometers:

• Bourdon manometer, measure range 10.33 mWC /25 MWC.

Venturi tube:

• Throat dimensions: 6x6mm

• Material: methacrylate

**DL DKL063**

The module is designed to demonstrate and study the phenomenon known as water hammer: this phenomenon occurs when a valve is closed suddenly in a pipeline system causing a pressure surge.

The equipment is suitable to provide all the necessary elements to perform several practical experiments in order to grant a complete understanding of the topic.

The system has three tanks placed at different heights:

- one tank is able to provide constant water supply granted by an air pressurized tank; it includes a check valve avoid the return of the water in this tank

- one tank has fixed overflow level

- one tank, the upper one, has adjustable overflow level

The equipment includes a quick lock valve in the pipeline for the flow cut generating the overpressure that leads to the phenomenon of the water hammer.

Moreover, the module is supplied with two pipes sections of different lengths (1 mt. and 3 mt. segments) in order to allow the performing of further experiments.

The system is supplied with a 500ml volumetric tank to perform suitable measurements for the performance of the experiments.

The module is supplied with a hose granting a possible connection to either the hydraulic bench or the hydraulic group with flow meter included.

**PERFORMABLE EXPERIMENTS**

• Demonstration and analysis of the water hammer phenomenon produced by the closing of a valve.

• Operation of the water hammer.

• Operation of the air chamber.

• Theoretical flow relation.

• Volumetric performance.

• Water hammer efficiency.

• Observation of the phenomenon to the following variables:

- Supply piping length

- Air volume in the chamber

- Flow rate of the water supply

**TECHNICAL DATA**

Tanks:

• Transparent PVC tank with fixed overflow.

• Transparent PVC tank with adjustable overflow.

Piping:

• 16mm inner Ø piping

Segments:

• 1 segment: 1 m length

• 1 segment: 3 m length

Water Hammer:

• Supply flow rate: 240 l/h

• High flow: 40 l/h

• Maximum elevation height: 250mm

**DL DKL092 **

This system has been designed to verify the validity of the theoretical expressions that determine the force exerted by a jet on different types of blades.

The equipment can be hooked up either on a hydraulic bench or a hydraulic group with flow meter.

The blade changing system is simple and fast and no tool is required.

It is supplied with three different blades: 90°, 105° and 180°.

**TRAINING OBJECTIVES**

• Study and determination of the force exerted by a jet on flat blade, deviating the water at 90°

• Study and determination of the force exerted by a jet on a blade with a deflection angle of 105°

• Study and determination of the force exerted by a jet on a hemispherical blade with a deflection angle of 180°

**TECHNICAL DATA**

Blades:

• 90° blade

• 105° blade

• 180° blade

Weights:

• One piece: 500g

• Four pieces: 100g

Nozzle:

• Outlet Ø 4.8mm

**DL DKL111**

The system has been designed to study the contraction phenomenon that occurs when a fluid pass through an orifice.

It has three nozzles whose geometry differs from each other in order to perform tests at different conditions. It is provided with a Pitot tube through which it is possible to measure the fluid speed at the outlet.

To perform the tests successfully, the system has a jet diameter measuring device that can be regulated for more accurate measurements.

Moreover, it is provided with a water column gauge which allows the water level measurement in the tank and the height of the water jet.

**TRAINING OBJECTIVES**

• Determining contraction and speed coefficients.

• Calculating the discharge coefficient

- Outlet holes

- Outlet nozzles

• Determination of the discharge coefficient by flow measurement

- Outlet holes

- Outlet nozzles

• For different flow, rates recalculate the preceding exercises.

• Emptying a tank comparison with different initial heights.

**TECHNICAL DATA**

Tank:

Cylindrical tank Ø 200mm x 430mm

Accessories:

• Outlet hole to which accessory have to be connected : 30mm

• Outlet nozzle : 10mm - straight

• Outlet nozzle : 10mm - 45° angle

• Outlet nozzle : 10mm - diaphragm

**DL DKL121**

This system is designed to study the output flow by holes disposed to get out horizontally.

The water tank has an adjustable height, so that test under different pressure conditions can be performed.

The tank has a level which indicates in every moment the height of the liquid.

Along with the possible horizontal jet trajectory, there are 8 vertical moving needles that are adjustable to follow the path of the jet, allowing a very easy measurement of the jet height.

Every nozzle is levelled with the inner surface of the tank, thus having minimal possible disruptions.

Moreover, the device has adjustable legs and a bubble level for proper system leveling.

**TRAINING OBJECTIVES**

• Rate coefficient determination.

• Jet trajectory stud.

• Rated coefficient determination for every size of a nozzle.

• Different nozzle comparison.

• Water jet comparison.

• Identification of the factor responsible for water column height changing.

**TECHNICAL DATA**

Tank:

• Cylindrical tank: Ø 160mm x 500mm

• Maximum water height: 410mm

Measurement system:

• 8 measurement rods with back ruler.

Nozzles

• Ø 3 nozzle

• Ø 6 nozzle

**DL DKL122**

The objective of this trainer is study of the formation of free and forced vortices.

It is called forced vortex when the rotation of a fluid it moves as a solid respect to an axis.

By definition, in this kind of vortex, each particle has the same angular velocity.

It is possible to create a forced vortex with an inlet water supply through nozzles, which at a certain inclination, they start a propeller like movement. This propeller rotates the fluid forming a parabolic curve.

Once the vortex has been generated, it may be represented with measuring rods.

These allow measuring the height of the parabolic curve at each point at a fixed radial distance.

The free vortex is one of the basic types of rotational flow.

This movement can be distinguished from the forced vortex because each particle moves in a circular path at different speed rates.

This variation is inversely proportional to the distance from the center of rotation. A pair of nozzles will be responsible of getting the fluid into the reservoir.

Their inclination allows free vortex formation.

It can be measured by different outlet nozzles the influence of the nozzle diameter with the characteristics of the vortex, as well as the pitot tubes of different lengths, in order to make pressure readings at different depths.

Furthermore a caliber can do readings of the vortex diameter according to its depth, thereof it is possible to represent a graphic of the result.

In order to make an appropriate observation of the vortex in each experiment, the flow control can be set by a discharge valve on the hydraulic bench, as inlet, and a ball valve as outlet.

**TRAINING OBJECTIVES**

• Study of a forced vortex

• Study of a free vortex

**TECHNICAL DATA**

Tank:

• Material: methacrylate.

• Cylindrical tank: Ø250 x 180 mm

• Inner diameter tank: Ø244 mm

Inlet flow nozzle:

• Free vortex nozzle:

- Inner Ø= 12.5mm

- Inclination angle rod: 15°

• Forced vortex nozzle:

- Inner Ø= 6mm

- Inclination angle rod: 60

Accessories:

• Vertical rods for height measurement.

- Rods: Ø 6mm

- Rod length: L=320mm

- Radial rod position: 110, 90, 70, 50 and 30mm

• Pitot tubes:

- Length radius: 15, 25 and 30mm

- Inner Ø= 1mm

• Caliber

- Range= 20 – 120mm

• Outlet nozzle:

- Diameters: Ø8mm, Ø16mm and Ø24mm

**DL DKL152 **

The miniature channel for flow visualization allows the observation and studying of the behavior of fluids in open channels and the flow lines formed around different submerged objects.

The operating mean for the experiments is the fluid water.

Putting diluted ink into water, the flow lines can be visible.

This combination of elements together with the transparency of the channel allows an optimal observation of the flow lines.

Although the shape and size of the system are tailored for the DL DKL014, it can also be used stand alone.

Different bodies of dump and profiles by various forms are supplied.

**TRAINING OBJECTIVES**

• Basic study of the flow channels

• Observation of the flow lines around bodies such as:

- Thin wall weir

- Thick wall weir

- Aerodynamic symmetrical profile

- Aerodynamic asymmetric profile

- Small cylinder

- Large cylinder

**TECHNICAL DATA**

Tank:

• Service mean: water

• Admission tank: approx. 9 liters

• Color used: ink

• Ink nozzles: 5

• Useful channel dimensions: (L x W x h): 600x615x150mm

• General dimensions: (L x W x h): 820x670x750mm

Submersible bodies:

• Thin wall weir (10x15x65mm)

• Thick wall weir (115x15x65mm)

• Aerodynamic symmetrical profile

• Aerodynamic asymmetric profile

• Small cylinder

• Large cylinder

**DL DKL162**

The objective of this system is the study of primary load losses that occur along a pipeline, both laminar and turbulent flows.

This unit has a horizontal pipe, in which readings of the pressure loss produced at different flow rates can be performed.

It is also possible to study friction with a turbulent or laminar flow.

To achieve the latter, pipe can be fed from a reservoir of constant height.

For readings of pressure upstream and downstream in the test pipe, we have two differential pressure gauges, one with water and other with mercury.

Two flow valves can be used for regulation: one located at the beginning of the installation and the other located at the end of the test pipe.

The flow through the pipe is measured by using the volumetric tank of the hydraulic bench.

**TRAINING OBJECTIVES**

• Determination of the loss of primary load produced in a pipe with a laminar flow.

• Determination of the loss of primary load produced in a pipe with a turbulent flow.

**TECHNICAL DATA**

• Load tank= Ø 150mm height= 500mm long.

• Maximum load for laminar flow: 900mm.

• Inner pipe Ø= 3mm

• Length among outlets= 500mm

• Water column measuring range= 600mm

• Differential digital manometer measuring range = 2000mbar.

.

**DL DKL171**

This system is appropriate for the study of losses. It has straight sections of piping, for the study of primary loss generated therein.

It also has elements such as elbows of different diameters such as 90° and 45°, tees, widening, narrowing, various types of valves (ball, gate, membrane, non-return ... ) with upstream and downstream pressure taps arranged for determining loss load between them produced with different flow rates.

All pressure connections have double sealed quick couplings.

The trainer has a differential manometer of water (1000mm) and a digital differential pressure gauge for measuring the resulting pressures.

**TRAINING OBJECTIVES**

• Measuring and testing the primary load losses that occur in a straight PVC pipe with an inner diameter 21.2 mm.

• Test of the relation between load losses and the fluid velocity in the pipe.

• Measuring the secondary load losses that occur in installation elements such as: elbows, tees, and valves, widening etc.

• Calculating coefficients of loss "K" corresponding to the elements above mentioned.

• Usage of different types of gauges:

- Water column.

- Differential electronic.

**TECHNICAL DATA**

• Aluminum frame with adjustable legs in height.

Hydraulic circuit:

• 90° elbow Ø25mm

• 90° elbow Ø16mm

• 45° elbow Ø25mm

• 90° curve Ø25mm

• 90° tee Ø25mm

• 45° tee Ø25mm

• Abrupt widening and narrowing 25mm – 50mm

• Smooth widening and narrowing 25mm – 16mm

• Gate valve

• Ball valve

• Membrane valve

• Non return valve

• Straight piping segment Ø25mm

Pressure measurement:

• Water column gauge de 1000mm

• Differential electronic gauge type

**DL DKL181**

To calculate secondary losses caused by installation accessories, it is possible to compare the difference of pressures between measuring point upstream and downstream the element of interest.

It has to be subtracted the main losses due to the straight pipe segment.

When it is necessary to measure the pressure loss that occurs between two measuring points in different diameter pipes, it should be taken into account that not all static pressure difference corresponds to the pressure losses: this is due to the transformation from static to dynamic pressure because of the increasing speed.

The system contains all the possible configurations with 90° elbows, besides abrupt widening and narrowing and a gate valve.

These losses are read simultaneously through a gauge with multiple water columns; it displays clearly the difference between different types of bends, abrupt widening and narrowing, and valve.

**TRAINING OBJECTIVES**

• Study the relationship between load losses and the fluid speed in the piping.

• Measurement and testing of secondary load losses which are produced in installation elements such as:

- Elbows 90°

- Curves 90°

- Long curves 90°

- Elbows 45°

- Abrupt widening

- Abrupt narrowing

- Gate valve

• Calculating coefficients of loss "K" corresponding to each of the elements mentioned above

• Using different types of gauges:

- Water column

- Electronic differential pressure gauge

**TECHNICAL DATA**

The unit has an electronic differential pressure gauge which allows measurement with a wider range of the head loss produced in the gate valve with different openings.

The flow measurements are done by using the volumetric tank of the hydraulic bench (required), which is also possible to study the relationship between pressure loss and fluid speed.

Pipe diameters:

• Main pipe: Inner Ø = 21.2mm ; Outer Ø = 25mm

• Narrowing / abrupt widening: Inner Ø = 27.2mm ; Outer Ø = 32mm

Components to study:

• Long curves 90°

• Abrupt widening

• Abrupt narrowing

• Elbows 90°

• Curves 90°

• Gate valve

• Short curve 90°

• Elbows 45°

Gauges:

• Manometer with 12 water columns of 440mm tubes

• Electronic differential pressure gauge

Additional features:

The machine has a hand pump for height adjustment of the multi-tube gauge reading.

**DL DKL182**

The objective of this equipment is the study and comparison of some of the different types of existing flow-meters.

The system includes several representative flow gauges such as a Venturi tube, a rotameter, a diaphragm, a globe valve and a Pitot tube placed in series to allow a direct comparison of results.

By doing some of the practices proposed, it is possible to understand the nature of fluids and the laws of statics, dynamics and thermodynamics.

It is also possible to easily observe general principles such as the laws of mass and energy conservation.

With help of a regulating valve it is possible to adjust the flow rate according to the needs of practice.

The results are displayed in the water column manometer and the supplied electronic differential gauge.

Through these pressure gauges students can work with data taken from different strategic points of the piping.

**TRAINING OBJECTIVES**

• Flow measurement comparison between the following elements:

- Venturi tube

- Rotameter

- Diaphragm

- Globe valve

- Pitot tube

- 90° elbow

• Load loss calculation for

- Venturi tube

- Rotameter

- Diaphragm

- Globe valve

- Pitot tube

- 90° elbow

• Demonstration of Bernoulli equation in a Venturi tube.

• Study of static, dynamic and total pressure.

For a better experience and visualization, the flow meters are built with transparent material.

**TECHNICAL DATA**

Inner diameter: Main pipe: Ø 25mm

Gauges:

• Water column manometer: 500mm

• Electronic differential pressure gauge

Pressure measuring points:

• Quick fittings with double closing.

Diaphragm:

• Hole diameter of the plate: Ø 13mm

• Hole diameter of the plate: Ø 15mm

Rotameter:

• Measuring range: 150 – 1500 l/min

Venturi tube:

• Throat Ø12mm

• Inner diameter upstream: Ø 21.2mm

• Upstream tapering: 22°

• Downstream tapering: 7°

Other elements:

• Pitot tubes

**DL DKL231**

The system reflects at a scale level the problem that usually appears calculating pressure and flow in pipes.

These pipes generally have different diameters and lengths and are interconnected.

These system’s shapes, such as in series, parallel or mesh, can severely complicate the calculation.

These interconnections are known as flow networks.

As an example, it could be like the water-supply network of a town or the fire-protection system in a building.

It is important to understand the behavior of these pipes, considering the pressure and flow for a good working design.

Thus, for example, applying system modeling, it is possible to predict the flow rate through each segment of pipe.

Moreover it is possible to realize experiments that allow to emulate the behavior of the flow networks in different conditions.

The module consists of a number of transparent tubes with different diameters and a number of valves placed in specific points of the network. It features fast connections and valves.

These allow a quick and easy exchange of pipes and several network configurations for exercise purposes.

The flow measurements can be done using the volumetric tank of the hydraulic bench (required). It is also possible to study the relationship between pressure loss and fluid speed.

**TRAINING OBJECTIVES**

• Piping network modeling to design and calibrate every component to predict the flow rate through each segment of pipe.

• Measurement and testing of load losses of different pipe work arrangements in series.

• Calculation and testing of distribution flow through several piping systems in parallel.

• Calculation and testing of distribution of flows and their directions in mesh piping system.

• Analyze the system behavior when another pipe in parallel is placed.

**TECHNICAL DATA**

Pipe sections : Inner diameters

• 1x pipe: 700mm Ø14 mm

• 1x pipe: 700mm Ø10 mm

• 2x pipes: 700mm Ø9 mm

• 1x pipe: 700mm Ø6 mm

Manometric measuring points

• It has 12 pressure measuring points.

• In every piping segment the pressure measuring point is 40mm away from three pieces joint.

Manometer

• Electronic differential pressure gauge

(±7000mbar)

**DL DKL272**

The system is designed for the study of static fluid and measurement of pressure with different types of piezometric tubes.

It also features level measuring elements such as gauge scales and level meter. (Limnimeter)

It has a transparent container to distribute water through valves and pipes and it is passed into the various columns.

One water column has a tilting system, so that it is possible to clearly see the effect on different possible inclinations.

Both in water columns and in the tank there is a graduated scale to display the water height.

A level meter (Limnimeter) is also provided to accurately measuring the water level.

**TRAINING OBJECTIVES**

• Study and checking the hydrostatic paradox.

• Comparison between absolute and relative pressure gauges.

• Utilization of the piezometer tube

• Measurement of pressure with the following types of gauges:

- U type

- Inverted U type

- Inclined type

- Differential type

• Using Limnimeter for measuring the water level.

• Using graduated scales for determining the level of water.

• Study of the influence of the air inside the pressure gauges.

• Study of the load losses

**TECHNICAL DATA**

Water tank:

• Storage capacity: 4 liters

• Max. height: 560mm

• Inner diameter: 94mm

Manometer:

• U shape manometer: scale 460mm

• Piezometric tubes: scale 460mm

- Two parallel type

- Two with variable section

• Inclined manometer: scale 460mm, four positions.

- 5°

- 30°

- 60°

- 90°

Other elements:

• Limnimeter: Maximum capacity reading of 150mm

• Check valve

**DL DKL291**

The pumps in a pipe system convert mechanical energy into hydraulic energy.

This additional energy allows a fluid to move from one location to another when not likely to flow by gravity.

For example, to raise a fluid at a certain height above the pump or recycle it in a closed system.

In general, the main purpose of a pump in a system is to increase the total energy in a quantity H.

The efficiency of a pumping system depends greatly on the type of pump configuration in series or in parallel as required by the system.

In addition, the flow control valve manages the pump operating mode, so it is possible to obtain experimental operating curves.

These curves can be compared with those supplied by the manufacturer, as well as with those obtained by mathematical calculation.

Furthermore, It is possible to experiment many operations such as the startup, the functioning, the operation and the regulation necessary in a pump installation.

The characteristics of a pump can also be studied when working individually or in groups.

The flow measurements are done by using the volumetric tank of the hydraulic bench (required), which is also possible to study the relationship between pressure loss and fluid speed.

**TRAINING OBJECTIVES**

Analysis of individual pumps:

• Determine the characteristic curves of a pump.

- Height – flow volume (H-Q)

Pumps analysis running in the same group:

• Characteristic curves in-series operation

- Height – flow volume (H-Q)

• Characteristic curves in-parallel operation

- Height – flow volume (H-Q)

**TECHNICAL DATA**

Pump characteristics:

• Maximum manometric head: 23 WMC

• Flow volume: 20/180l/min

• H: 31 / 16 WMC

• Max. power: 950W

• Max. speed: 3,450 RPM

Pressure gauges:

• Bourdon manometer 0-65 WMC

• Bourdon vacuum pressure gauge (-10) – 45 WMC

Tank:

• Capacity: 250 liters

**DL DKB031**

The pumps in a pipe system convert mechanical energy into hydraulic energy.

This additional energy allows a fluid to move from one location to another when it is not possible to flow by gravity.

For example, to raise a fluid at a certain height above the pump or recycle it in a closed system.

In general, the main purpose of a pump in a system is to increase the total energy in quantity H.

The fluid is collected and contained by the pump casing, which drives the fluid by its outline shape to the outlet pipes or to another impelling stage.

This system allows studying the characteristics of a pump working individually at different rotational speeds.

This is made possible by a frequency inverter which adjusts the working speed according to each case study.

In addition, the flow control valve manages the pump operating mode, so it is possible to obtain experimental operating curves.

These curves can be compared with those supplied by the manufacturer, as well as those obtained by mathematical calculation.

**TRAINING OBJECTIVES**

• Determine the characteristic curves of a pump at different working speeds.

- Height – flow volume (H-Q)

**TECHNICAL DATA**

Pump characteristics:

• Maximum manometric head: 22M WC

• Flow volume: 10 / 80 l/min

• H: 21.9 M WC

• Max. power: 370W (0.5 HP)

• Max. speed: 3.450 RPM

Pressure gauges:

• Bourdon manometer 0-60 M WC

• Bourdon vacuum pressure gauge (-10) - 45 M WC

Variable frequency drive:

• Rated power: 0.37kW

• Output current: 2.2A

• Rated voltage: 110V

• Frequency: 60Hz

**DL DKB032**

The purpose of this didactic trainer is to study the flow behavior in open channels and closed pipes, by realizing some experiments in both conditions.

The channel is totally transparent so it allows an clear observation of the hydraulic flow.

In order to carry out the experiments in a closed channel, the trainer includes a cover for hermetically sealing.

Pitot tubes are positioned along the whole length of the channel: this allows the measuring of the working pressure in 6 points.

These value pressure points are gathered into the 6 tubes manometer.

By floodgates, it is possible to increase water volume in the inlet or outlet tanks.

**TRAINING OBJECTIVES**

Open channel:

• Study of water flows through open channels identifying variables like:

- Water height

- Speed at different points of the cross-sectional area.

• Study of constant water flow, gradually varied flow and behavior of surface profiles.

• Study and utilization of thin edged weir for flow measurements.

- Rectangular weir without lateral contraction.

• Study and utilization of broad crested weir for flow measurements.

- Rectangular weir.

• Analysis and study of discharge under a gate.

- Vertical weir

• Study of jump spillway

• Water flow analysis on the weir

Closed channel:

• Measurement of static, dynamic and total pressure in a closed channel.

• Study of water flows in a closed pipe with constant cross sectional area.

• Study of pipe flow with variable cross-sectional area to demonstrate the Bernoulli equation.

**TECHNICAL DATA**

Tank:

• Section of the channel (W x H): 77 x 150 mm

• Length of the channel: 1130 mm.

• Methacrylate channel for clear visualization of the behavior of the water with the different weirs.

• Weirs in the inlet and outlet tanks for an easy control of the height of the water slide.

• Calming the flow of water into the inlet.

• Cap on the top of the channel for an easy exchange of the different weirs.

• The channel bottom c sheet can be modified in height for altering the cross-section of the channel, when it works as a closed channel.

• Structure in anodized aluminum, with wheels to facilitates its handling.

• Approximate Dimensions: 2000 x 500 x1500 mm.

Accessories included:

• 6-tube multi-gauge for the measurement of static and total pressure throughout the channel

• Rectangular thick wall weir

• Thin wall weir without contraction

• Ogee type overflow weir

**DL DKD061**

This trainer can simulate a small scale Pelton turbine, especially designed for educational purposes.

It grants the possibility to constantly observe the system operation and its main components.

The turbine housing is partially transparent so that students can see how the turbine uses the inertia transferred by a water jet.

The water jet propels the turbine thanks to the recoil principle.

It includes several adjustable components that allow the changing of the parameters which can affect the mechanism.

The system has a built-in regulating valve of the water inlet allowing the functioning with different flows, as required.

The braking system is composed of dynamometers that allow the running at different revolutions according to the braking force exerted.

**TRAINING OBJECTIVES**

• Characteristic curves of the turbine:

- Torque - speed (M -n)*.

- Brake power – rotational speed (Pe-n)*.

- Performance – rotational speed (ƞ- n)*.

- Torque - U (M- U).

- Brake power - U (Pe-U).

- Performance - U (ƞ-U).

• Curves of Iso-yield.

**TECHNICAL DATA**

Manometer:

• Bourdon with glycerin 0-25 M WC

Brake Type:

• Friction Brake.

Turbine

• Type: Pelton.

• Number of blades: 16.

• Impeller diameter 124 mm.

• Bucket depth 14 mm.

• Jet diameter 10 mm.

• Shaft diameter 16 mm.

• Rated speed 1.000 rpm
Dynamometers

• 2 x dynamometers: 5kg x 25g

Inner diameters:

• Discharge pipe: Outer Ø=32mm

• Suction pipe: Inner Ø=10mm

**DL DKH011**

This trainer can simulate a small scale Francis turbine, especially designed for educational purposes. It grants the possibility to constantly observe the system operation and its main components.

The turbine housing is partially transparent so that it can be seen how the water flow rotates the impeller.

Moreover the movement of the fins guide of the distributor can be observed with which the flow regulation of the inlet turbine is achieved.

In addition, it can be visualized the impact of the fluid on the fins and perform specific measurements.

The module has an inlet regulating valve allowing the working with different flow rates and granting the performing of many exercises.

The inlet pressure of the turbine can be studied in the given manual, by using a Bourdon gauge included in the equipment.

**TRAINING OBJECTIVES**

• Characteristic curves of the turbine with constant values of H and Q:

- Torque - speed (M -n)*

- Brake power – rotational speed (Pe-n)*

- Performance – rotational speed (ƞ- n)*

• Curves of Iso-yield.

The braking system is composed of dynamometers that allow that allow the running at different speed depending on the applied braking force.

This force can be easily read on the dynamometers included in the didactic trainer.

**TECHNICAL DATA**

Manometer

• Bourdon type with glycerin 0-25 M WC

Turbine

• Number of fixed fins: 12.

• Number of inlet guide fins: 6 (from 0 to 100% adjustable)

• Impeller diameter 124 mm.

• Material: bronze

• Rated speed 2,000 rpm

Dynamometers

• 2 x dynamometers: 2kg x 10g

Inner diameters:

• Discharge pipe: Inner Ø=27.2mm

• Suction pipe: Inner Ø=27.2mm

**DL DKH012**

The system simulates a small scale Kaplan turbine, especially designed for educational purposes.

It is delivered with 3 impellers with different angles of input and output, which can be exchanged in a fast and simple way.

The trainer is designed for the study and the demonstration of the behavior and the characteristics of a Kaplan turbine.

**TRAINING OBJECTIVES**

• Characteristic curves of the turbine:

- Torque - speed (M -n)*.

- Brake power – rotational speed (Pe-n)*.

- Performance – rotational speed (ƞ- n)*.

- Torque - U (M- U)

- Brake power - U (Pe-U)

- Performance - U (ƞ-U)

• Curves of Iso-yield.

**TECHNICAL DATA**

Gauge:

• Bourdon with glycerin.

Brake Type:

• Friction brake.

Turbine

• Type: Kaplan

• Number of fins: 4

• Fins angle: manually adjustable

• Fins vanes

Dynamometers

• 2 x dynamometers: 5kg x 25g

**DL DKH014**

The module has been designed to work with the hydraulic bench DL DKL014. It is mounted on an aluminum frame.

It is supplied with a number of pipes and valves that allows the coupling of the module and the pump of the hydraulic bench in-series or in parallel.

The system has a frequency converter to control the pump rotation speed.

It also includes two power meters for the obtaining of the consumed power of the two pumps.

Besides the study of the characteristics of centrifugal pumps, it is possible to approach the operation and function of the main factors affecting the pump efficiency.

**TRAINING OBJECTIVES**

• Start up of a pump, analysis and study of related aspects.

• Pump priming.

• Checking the direction of rotation

• Over current produced in the pump motor.

• Study and obtaining of the characteristic curves of a pump: Height – flow (H-Q) / Power – flow (P-Q) / Performance – flow (ƞ-Q)

• Study of cavitation and obtaining the characteristic curves of NPSH required flow.

• Study of different ways to regulate a turbo pump.

• Variation of pump rotational speed and obtaining new curves.

• Changing the operating point by varying the pumping installation

• Adjusting the discharge valve

• Analysis of similar pumps running in group
- Characteristic curves in-series operation: Height - flow ( H- Q ) / Power - Flow (P- Q ) / Performance - Flow (ƞ - Q )

- Characteristic curves parallel operation. Height - flow (H- Q) / Power - Flow (P- Q) / Performance - Flow (ƞ - Q)

• Analysis of different pumps running in group

- Characteristic curves in-series operation. Height - flow (H- Q) / Power - Flow (P- Q) / Performance - Flow (ƞ - Q)

- Characteristic curves parallel operation. Height - flow (H- Q) / Power - Flow (P- Q) / Performance - Flow (ƞ - Q)

**TECHNICAL DATA**

Diameters

• Suction piping

- Inner Ø = 27.2mm

- Outer Ø = 32mm

• Discharge piping

- Inner Ø = 34mm

- Outer Ø = 40mm

Manometers:

• Bourdon type with glycerin from -10.33m to +35M WC (x3).

• Bourdon type with glycerin from -10m to +70 M WC

Pump features:

• Maximum manometric head: 23m M WC

• Maximum flow rate: 20/160 l/min

• H21 / 10m M WC

• H max 23m M WC

• H min 10m M WC

• Power consumption: 750W (1hp)

• Motor speed: 2,900rpm

Power meter:

• Power meter with range: 0-1,200W

**DL DKL032 **

The objective of this trainer is to recreate the experiment of Osborne Reynolds by reproducing laminar, turbulent and transition flows.

Assigning the corresponding Reynolds number to each of them.

The trainer includes a water supply system for a constant feeding to the calibrated center glass tube, where the different types of flow can be displayed.

A colored liquid can be injected from the tank placed at the top of the system into the central glass tube; the color allows the observation of different phenomenon.

Either the dye deposit and the glass tube are equipped with valves to regulate respectively the amount of colorant and flow.

**TRAINING OBJECTIVES**

Study and determination of Reynolds number for:

• Laminar flow regime

• Transition flow regime

• Turbulent flow regime

**TECHNICAL DATA**

Inner diameters:

• Calibrated glass tube:

- Inner diameter= 12mm - Length= 750mm

Dye:

• Acrylic ink

Dimension:

• 450mm x660mm x 1,350mm

**DL DKL142 **