The “Grid”, refers to the electric grid, a network of transmission lines, substations, transformers and more that deliver electricity from the power plants to home or business. The digital technology that allows for two-way communication between the utility and its customers, and then the sensing along the transmission lines is what makes the grid Smart. The Smart Grid consists of controls, computers, automation, new technologies and equipment working together, able to calculate the consumption of the various end users and to manage the generation and distribution of electricity according to demand. For this important topic, De Lorenzo has developed a modular laboratory for the study of the concepts related to; it simulates the generation of energy from three different sources (thermal, hydroelectric and wind farm), its transmission and distribution by means of high voltage lines simulation models and its utilization including small PV solar energy plants for domestic use. It is also available an option to integrate, beside the PV solar system, a wind energy modular trainer to connect to the mains network from the end user’s side. Of course, a SCADA software provides the acquisition, storage and monitoring of the data along the whole system. It is especially designed for university students and engineering graduates.
TSince the early 21st century, opportunities to take advantage of improvements in electronic communication
technology to resolve the limitations and costs of the electrical grid have become apparent.
Technological limitations on metering no longer force peak power prices to be averaged out and passed on to all consumers equally.
In parallel, growing concerns over environmental damage from fossil fuel-fired power stations has led to a desire to use large amounts of renewable energy.
Dominant forms such as wind power and solar power are highly variable, and so the need for more sophisticated control systems became apparent, to facilitate the connection of sources to the otherwise highly controllable grid.
Power from photovoltaic cells (and to a lesser extent wind turbines) has also, significantly, called into question the imperative for large, centralised power stations.
The rapidly falling costs point to a major change from the centralised grid topology to one that is highly distributed, with power being both generated and consumed right at the limits of the grid.
Finally, growing concern over terrorist attack in some countries has led to calls for a more robust energy grid that is less dependent on centralised power stations that were perceived to be potential attack targets.
Didactic system for the study of the generation of electric energy from a wind turbine and its inlet in the
The device includes a set of control modules, measures and applications, a wind turbine, a stepper motor to drive the wind generator in absence of wind and descriptive and practical manuals.
The system is composed of the following modules:
• Module for measuring electric and wind parameters
• DC/AC conversion module
• Braking resistance, 250 W, 3 Ohm
• Mains lamps module
• Energy measurement module
• Differential magneto‐thermal switch
• Network distributor
• Motor kit for driving the wind turbine, composed of a stepper motor and a 300 W power supply
• Wind generator: 400W, 12Vac
• Wind sensor: Anemometer and wind direction sensor mounted on a stand
It also includes:
• Two level frame
• Set of interconnecting wires
• Descriptive and practical manual
• Wind turbine instruction manual
The trainer includes a software for data acquisition and processing.