Industrial plant (physical or mechanical) refers to the necessary infrastructure used in operation and maintenance of a given facility.
It is an area of general education that deals with technology and industry and should not be confused with “manufacturing plant” in the sense of “a factory”. It is an engineering discipline that includes engineering sciences and optimization of complex processes, systems or organizations.
The main objective for people within this discipline is to improve efficiency, drive up effectiveness of manufacturing, quality control, and to reduce cost while making their products more attractive and marketable. Industrial engineering is concerned with the development, improvement, and implementation of integrated systems of people, money, knowledge, information, equipment, energy, materials, as well as analysis and synthesis.
Therefore, industrial engineering is the branch of engineering that involves figuring out how to make or do things better.
For this field, De Lorenzo has designed a wide range of industrial plants of modest size, recommended for professional institutes, vocational schools and technical colleges, such as:
• Absorption and Desorption plant to study those phenomenon by analyzing the various variables affecting the processes liquid inflow, gas inflow and gas flow and liquid ratio and where the absorption is a physical or chemical process in which atoms, molecules or ions enter some bulk phase-liquid or solid material and desorption is a phenomenon whereby a substance is released from or through a surface.
• Combined chemical reactor plant to study the chemical reaction in a tubular chemical reactor and in a stirred tank reactor; the chemical reactor is an enclosed volume in which a chemical reaction takes place and the stirred tank reactor is where one or more fluid reagents are introduced into a tank which is typically stirred with an impeller to ensure proper mixing of the reagents while the reactor effluent is removed. It is complete with a personal computer and SCADA software that allows remote monitoring and control of the plant.
• Continuous distillation plant to study how to remove a volatile liquid to enrich a solute working at atmospheric pressure or in depression. This kind of plant is used widely in the chemical process industries where large quantities of liquid have to be distilled. The principle for continuous distillation is when a liquid mixture is heated so that it boils, the composition of the vapor above the liquid differs from the liquid composition. If this vapor is then separated and condensed into a liquid, it becomes richer in the lower boiling point component(s) of the original mixture. • Gas purification plant to test the removal of solid particles from a gas stream, through different methods such as static settler, dynamic settler and cyclonic separator and comparing all the three processes.
• Liquid-Liquid extraction plant to perform an operation of matter transfer based on the dissolution of one or more components of a liquid mixture in a selective solvent, immiscible with the liquid. This process is usually performed when the separation by distillation is ineffective or impractical. It removes an impurity or recovers a desired product by dissolving the crude material in a solvent in which other components of the feed material are soluble.
• Solid-Liquid extraction plant to carry out studies of extraction by using different solids and changing the main variables that affect the process such as light liquid flow, speed of rotation of the endless screw, solvent temperature, solid feed speed and inclination angle. This process allows soluble components to be removed from solids using a solvent from example obtaining oil from oil seeds or metal salts from ores.
• Plant of erosion – corrosion to test the effects of erosion and/or corrosion in specimens of different materials. The phenomenon erosion – corrosion is a degradation of material surface due to mechanical action, often by impinging liquid, abrasion by a slurry, particles suspended in fast flowing liquid or gas, bubbles or droplets, cavitation, etc. It can be described as mechanical erosion of the material (protective or passive oxide layer on its surface) and enhanced corrosion of the material (if the corrosion rate of the material depends on the thickness of the oxide layer).
• Heat exchanger plant that allows to study the device which transfers heat from one medium to another, between a solid object and a fluid, or between two or more fluids that may be separated by a wall to prevent mixing or they may be in direct contact. They are widely used in space heating, refrigeration, air conditioning, power stations, chemical plants, petrochemical plants, petroleum refineries, natural gas processing and sewage treatment plants. The plant allows a comparison among three most common types of heat exchangers: plates heat, concentric tubes and shell and tubes exchanger.
• Cathodic protection plant; it is a technique used to control the corrosion of metal structure by making it the cathode of an electrochemical cell. This technique protects a wide range of metallic structures in various environments such as steel water or fuel pipelines, steel storage tanks as home water heaters, steel pier piles, ship and boat hulls etc. Another important application is in galvanized steel, in which a sacrificial coating of zinc on steel parts protects them from rust. For this phenomenon, De Lorenzo has developed a training bench, in two versions single and double station, to provide facilities to study the case of isolated systems, as well as the case of systems where different metals are coupled. They are supplied with suitable devices to highlight the parameters and to build with a certain accuracy the polarization curves. The advantage of the double station version is the possibility to perform simultaneously the same experiment with different values of the parameters. They are complete with PC interface and software for data acquisition.
• Single stage compressor plant to carry out the operating features of a volumetric single stage compressor, industrial type, and particularly its ranges of application. It is supplied with a supervision software already installed on a personal computer connected with the hardware that gathers the operating data of the system and controls the operation of the trainer. It is complete with sensors and measurement instrumentation to monitor flow rate, rpm, torque and pressure. It also includes inverter, AC motor, storage tank, control panel, multifunction meter, and valve for delivery regulation and reduction station.
This trainer allows studying the absorption and desorption by analyzing the various variables affecting the process:
• liquid inflow,
• gas inflow,
• gas flow and liquid ratio.
OPERATION OF THE PLANT / TECHNICAL FEATURES
The main element of the trainer is a column of 1400 mm. height and 80 mm in diameter made in glass.
The column is supplied filled with glass Rasching rings 9x9 mm, and also supplied with polypropylene Pall rings, for the replacement of the glass Rasching rings in order to be able to study the effect of the filler on the efficiency of the absorption and desorption process.
In both cases, the column filling maximizes the gas ‐ liquid contact surface, so that it produces the maximum possible absorption or desorption.
The plant has pressure taps at the bottom and at the top of the column and two intermediate taps, through quick couplings connected to a water column differential manometer that allows determining the pressure drop within the column and the effects of the speeds of the liquid and of the gas on the pressure drop within the column.
The plant also has three intermediate samplers for sampling both the liquid phase and the gas phase and 4 temperature probes with digital display.
The liquid phase is stored in a tank of about 30 liters of capacity made of polyethylene.
Water or absorption liquid is led into the reaction column through a metering pump, which allows setting the incoming water flow to the column.
In a flow meter positioned on the liquid inlet line can be displayed the liquid inflow. This flow meter is made of borosilicate glass and stainless steel AISI‐316, with stainless steel float.
The liquid is introduced through the top of the column through liquid diffuser, which permits the dispersion of the liquid and thus a better distribution of the fluid within the column.
For the plant operation, network air is used.
The flow of air into the installation can be regulated and visualized with a rotameter 0‐5 m3 /h of methacrylate provided with regulating valve.
The plant is designed for the performance of practices of dissolved CO2 absorption in air on a liquid stream.
To do this, in a T it occurs the mixing of air and CO2 whose inlet can be visualized and regulated in a rotameter 0‐2 m3 /h. Subsequent to the mixing point between CO2 and air, we have the inlet of the gas stream at the bottom of the absorption column.
The contact between the liquid and the gas inside the column above the surface of the filling rings favors the transfer of material.
To study the desorption processes, the circulating water will be contaminated by means of a volatile component, for example ammonia in concentrations of 100‐5000 mg/l.
By circulating air in countercurrent, this produces the desorption of the contaminant dissolved in the liquid phase, and it is possible to determine the effectiveness of the process by analyzing the concentrations of ammonia at the inlet and outlet.
The output fluid is stored in a glass container, when operating in continuous mode, or can be returned to the feed tank when operating in batch regime.
To determine the effectiveness of the operation the plant has a gauge of CO2 concentration in air, with infrared CO2 meter; it includes a water filter before the meter.
This meter may be used for determining the concentration of this compound both at the inlet and at the outlet of the column.
Likewise, at the bottom of the column there is a water seal to prevent loss of gas through the bottom of the colu
Our Chemical Reaction Plant allows the study of chemical reactions in a tubular chemical reactor and in a stirred tank reactor.
Therefore, the plant is composed of two reactors:
• a stirred tank reactor, with a capacity ranging from 2 to 8 liters
• a tubular reactor
OPERATION OF THE PLANT / TECHNICAL FEATURES
The unit includes the process plant and the cabinet where you can control all the elements involved. All elements of the plant are controlled from the lever switches in this cabinet.
The plant includes two 125 liters tanks containing reagents that are sent into the column by two peristaltic pumps.
The column of the tubular chemical reactor is filled with water and it can be heated by recirculation of water in closed circuit to a tank equipped with an electrical resistance of 2500 W. This resistance must always operate submerged, and the water tank has a level sensor which prevents the operation of the resistance if the water level is not sufficient.
The same heating system keeps the reactor at the desired temperature thanks to an external jacket of the reactor.
In the reaction tank of the chemical tubular reactor there is a silicone winding of 30 meters in length, and a useful volume of 2.3 liters that constitutes the tubular reactor properly said.
The reactants are driven by peristaltic pumps at a flow between 0 and 60 l/h, entering the column at its bottom through anti‐return valves and mixed immediately, and then mixing in the reactor and up to the top of column.
Since the reactor is immersed in the heating water, during its travel the reactant mixture is maintained at the proper temperature for the reaction.
To view the inflow of both reactants, the system is provided with rotameters with maximum flow of 60 l/h.
Likewise, by previously closing the inlet valves of the tubular chemical reactor, and opening the inlet to the stirred tank reactor, the reactants will enter in the reactor of 150 mm diameter and 500 mm height in which the reaction takes place; this reactor has an external heating system that allows maintaining the temperature at the desired value, likewise the reactant mixture is maintained under stirring by a variable speed stirrer.
In order to obtain that this temperature is reached already at the time of the mixture, in the heating water tank there are two stainless steel coils in which the reactants circulate before entering the reaction column for mixing.
The temperature regulation of the heating tank is carried out by a controller in the control cabinet. It can be seen at all times both the actual temperature in the tank and the fixed set point (desired temperature).
At the outlet of the tubular reactor there is a conductivity probe to measure this parameter in order to draw conclusions about the performed reaction; similarly, the stirred tank reactor has a conductivity probe placed inside the tank.
Both displays are on the front panel of the cabinet.
The continuous distillation plant allows the study of removing a volatile liquid to enrich a solute; it allows working at atmospheric pressure or in depression.
With this equipment we can perform studies by changing the main variables that affect the continuous distillation process:
• Inlet feed temperature
• Heating power
• Liquid inflow
• Column pressure
• Ratio of the reflux
• Inflow cooling
OPERATION OF THE PLANT / TECHNICAL FEATURES
The main element of the plant is a packed column of 50 mm. diameter and 1100 mm. in height, made in high strength glass (borosilicate).
Packed columns ("packing towers") are columns that normally have a low diameter‐height relationship, filled in their inside with small solid elements (relatively to the diameter of the column).
These fillers are inert to the circulating phase and are distributed randomly or orderly.
The stream of liquid falling on them brakes into droplets, and is brought into intimate contact with the steam flowing in the opposite direction (counter flow).
There are many different types of commercial fillers, and, among other, the following features are pursued: a high surface area per unit volume, low weight, good mechanical strength and that the constituents will not compact together.
Our packed column is supplied with 5 mm. borosilicate Raschig rings.
The vapors given off during distillation pass to a distillation head equipped with a temperature probe.
This head is responsible for distributing the vapor before being condensed.
It is used with a solenoid valve and an electronic timer to achieve an automatic and precise control of the reflux ratio.
The glass valve that determines the reflux ratio is driven by the solenoid valve.
In the rest position all the vapor is condensed in the condenser head and returned to the column as reflux, whereas when the valve is held suspended, the vapor is separated as distillate through a condenser and collected in a graduated collector of 1 l and in a flask.
The heating of the column is performed from the base in a kettle of stainless steel AISI‐316 of 20 liter and with an immersion resistance of 5 kW, and provided with overflow with concentric tube type heat exchanger that cools the residues of the boiler before their evacuation, low level alarm and control system of the heating power.
The fraction of residue that overflows from the boiler is stored in a stainless steel tank of 10 l capacity that will be hermetically sealed to maintain the vacuum conditions throughout the process; it will communicate through a valve with a graduated container of 4 l capacity.
The feed is stored in a reservoir of plastic material, and is introduced into the distillation tower through a metering pump with an adjustable and maximum flow of 15 l/h.
It has a rotameter to regulate and control the feed rate.
Before entering the distillation column, the feed passes through a heater provided with a resistance, a Pt100 temperature probe and a PID controller for carrying out the preheating of the feed.
To study the distillation at low pressure, the plant has a vacuum system that allows working at pressures of 200 mbar; the operating pressure can be monitored and controlled thanks to a manometer gauge and an inverter.
The vacuum is achieved by a liquid ring pump.
The gas purification plant allows testing the removal of solid particles from a gas stream, through different methods:
• Static settler
• Dynamic settler
• Cyclonic separator, and comparing the three processes.
The contaminant, solid, is stored in a hopper, from where it is dosed to the process by means of an Archimedes screw which is directly actuated by a gear motor.
OPERATION OF THE PLANT
The gas circulation through the plant is obtained by operating a blower of 1.1 kW, 900 m3 maximum flow and 475 mm CH2O of pressure; it is possible to change the flow of the circulating air by means of a frequency inverter that acts on the rotational speed of the blower motor.
The contaminant is introduced into the suction of the blower so that at the outlet we have, already mixed, the air and the solid contaminant.
The rest of the circuit as well as the particle separators are made of transparent methacrylate in order to visualize the entire process.
The gas stream can be led in four branches, each one offering a different process for separating the contaminant; each of these branches can be easily removed, independently from the rest, because in each branch there is a valve and a union nut:
• In the first branch the gas stream is not treated, so it acts as a target and we can later compare the concentrations of particles at its outlet with those obtained through the other branches.
• In the second branch the gas stream passes through a static separator (without obstacles) where we have the separation of cleaned gas and particles.
• In the third branch the gas stream passes through a dynamic separator (with obstacles placed in the direction of the gas) where we have the separation of cleaned gas and particles.
• In the fourth branch we have a cyclone separator made in transparent methacrylate.
When using the methacrylate, the sand as a contaminant can produce wear or damage to the inside of the pieces, but in any case you will be able to have an idea of what type of flow is being produced; this would not be possible if we used an opaque material.
Finally, the gas is led to a filter with double paper or plastic, easily removable cartridge type, with spares. In the filter all the solid matter that has not been able to retain in the previous devices is then retained.
By weighing this filter, it is possible to easily determine the solid matter concentration in the outlet gas.
The purged gas at the filter outlet is led through a rotameter that allows knowing at each time the flow of the circulating air.
When the separation by distillation is ineffective or impractical, the liquid‐liquid extraction is one of the alternatives to consider.
This plant allows performing an operation of matter transfer based on the dissolution of one or more components of a liquid mixture in a selective solvent, immiscible with the liquid.
OPERATION OF THE PLANT
The equipment presented here works in continuous at countercurrent and by contact between phases through a packed bed, with the mixing and the separation taking place simultaneously and continuously.
The feed is introduced at the top of the column and the solvent is introduced through its bottom.
Light liquid drops ascend through the mass of the heavier liquid flowing down the tower as a continuous stream.
The droplets are collected at the top and form the lighter liquid stream exiting the top of the tower, while the heavier liquid leaves the bottom of the tower.
The extract is the stream of solvent after it has received the solute contained in the feed (light liquid). The refined product is the stream of feed, once the solute (heavy liquid) has been extracted.
There is a continuous transfer of matter between phases and the phase composition varies as it circulates through the tower. In any horizontal plane the equilibrium is not reached, but, conversely, the separation of equilibrium is what provides the impulse force for the transfer of mass.
The main element of the plant is a borosilicate column of 1900 mm. in height and 38.5 mm. of internal diameter, where the process takes place.
The trainer is complete with 2 adjustable flow peristaltic pumps, that are responsible for the inlet of both the light and the heavy liquid into the column, two borosilicate rotameters with steel AISI‐316 float to monitor the flow of both liquids, four 20 liters tanks for the feed liquid and for collecting the products resulting from the extraction process.
The column is supplied with three side ports for sampling.
The filler material is formed by AR glass Raschig rings of 6 mm. in diameter and 6 mm. in length, supported on an plate with orifices made of Teflon and located at 370 mm. from the bottom of the column.
At the bottom of the column there is a needle valve of stainless steel that is used to manually regulate the flow of heavy liquid outwardly from the column, thus being able to vary the height of the interface between the two liquids.
At the bottom of the column there is also a ball valve, in stainless steel, for emptying the column.
The outlet of the light liquid is produced at 270 mm. above the entry point of the heavy liquid.
Also, the heavy liquid outlet occurs at 140 mm. below the entry point of the light liquid.
This plant allows studying the process of solid‐liquid extraction.
The plant allows carrying out studies of extraction by using different solids and changing the main variables that affect the process:
• Light liquid flow
• Speed of rotation of the endless screw
• Solvent temperature
• Solid feed speed
• Inclination angle
OPERATION OF THE PLANT / TECHNICAL FEATURES
The core of the plant is a stainless steel column of 600 mm. of working length, 100 mm. in diameter and 80 mm. screw diameter; the column has an outer jacket to control the extraction temperature.
The extractor heating is achieved by the passage through the outer jacket of the water coming from a thermostatic bath of 20 l. capacity with analog temperature control from the ambient temperature up to 100 °C.
This bath has a safety thermostat and a level float that switches off the heating in absence of liquid.
The outlet of the jacket water goes back to the tank, thus creating a closed circuit.
At the same time the column is mounted on screwed legs to modify the pitch of the reactor.
The solids are stored in a hopper located above the extraction column made of stainless steel, being possible to adjust the inlet of the solids in the plant by modifying the number of revolutions per minute of the screw.
The movement and the contact of the solid with the liquid is favored by an endless screw driven by a gear motor, that includes a drive controller for changing the rpm; the liquid inlet flows in counter current or in parallel to the inlet of the solid.
The treated solids are collected in a plastic tray.
The solvent is stored in a plastic tank of 20 l. capacity and is introduced into the extractor by a controlled flow peristaltic pump.
The equipment includes a system for preheating the solvent, independently on the heating system for the extractor, composed of a temperature probe, a heating resistance and a PID controller.
The plant is complete with Pt100 temperature probes and their corresponding digital displays for measuring the inlet and outlet temperature of solvent and extract.
The plant also includes a cabinet where there are the switches for the activation of the various elements by the user and the electrical control elements and protections required under the Low Voltage Electro‐technical Regulations and Rules of Machines to ensure the safety of people and equipment, switches, circuit breakers, differential switches, mushroom emergency stop, etc.
This plant allows testing the effects of erosion and/or corrosion in specimens of about 50 mm in length built in different materials.
OPERATION OF THE PLANT
Water with suspended material is stored in a tank of 1000 L capacity made of stainless steel AISI 316, with drain valve and manhole for filling.
This tank is complete with stirring to keep the mixture in suspension, a heater for heating the fluid, a Pt‐100 sensor, and a digital controller for controlling the parameters in the tank.
The tank is thermally insulated to prevent heat loss. In order to fill the tank there is a centrifugal pump in stainless steel AISI 316 that gives a maximum flow of 45 m3 /h with a power of 1.5 kW.
The suspension is driven by a second centrifugal pump of stainless steel AISI 316 with similar characteristics to the previous one through a pipe of about 65 mm. diameter, U‐shaped, built in plastic material or stainless steel AISI 316 and is returned back to tank, thus creating a closed circuit.
The recirculation flow of the liquid to the tank is controlled through a valve that regulates the flow of water driven to the pipe.
The flow driven by the pump can be displayed on a rotameter.
At the end of this pipeline there is a pipe section that can be easily replaced by other pipe sections of different materials of 150 mm in diameter.
In this section of pipe, specimens to be tested are inserted.
There is also a temperature probe Pt‐100 with relevant digital display.
The Heat Exchangers trainer has been designed for the study of these devices that are extensively used in the industry.
It is also possible to study the theory of the heat exchange, by measuring the temperatures at all points of interest, and to study the influence of different parameters on the effectiveness of the exchange.
OPERATION OF THE PLANT / TECHNICAL FEATURES
The plant allows a comparison among the three most common types of heat exchangers:
• plates heat exchanger,
• concentric tubes heat exchanger,
• shell and tubes heat exchanger.
The principle of the heat exchangers is based on the transmission of heat energy between two fluids at different temperatures through the separation surface between the two ducts, so that the fluid at higher temperature transfers heat to the fluid at lower temperature.
In this way, both temperatures tend to equalize, and the desired objective is obtained, that will be in one case to heat a fluid and in the other one to cool it.
There are many and different devices designed to provide or to remove heat, although the ones that are listed below represent the three typical systems of heat exchangers:
Removable plates heat exchangers
It is the most effective system for exchanging heat. It is based on a series of plates mounted in parallel, machined in such a way to form between them chambers through which, in separate circuits, pass the refrigerant liquid and the liquid to be refrigerated.
The performance of such a system is very high because it has a very large heat exchange surface and a limited external volume. It is also very easy to be maintained and cleaned. Double tube heat exchangers
It consists of two concentric tubes, through which a fluid circulates inside the inner tube and another fluid through the annular space.
The two fluids exchange heat through the wall that divides them.
These systems are used for small heat flows.
Shell and tube heat exchangers
They are composed of a cylindrical housing inside which there is a bundle of tubes of small diameter, parallel to the axis of the cylinder.
A fluid circulates through the interior of the tubes, while the second fluid circulates inside the housing, bathing the bundle of tubes by their outer wall.
At the ends of the bundle of tubes we have the heads of the exchanger that allow distributing the fluid that circulates through the tubes.
Several baffles placed in the housing causes the external fluid to circulate in the direction as perpendicular as possible to the bundle of tubes, and this improves the heat transfer.
If the two fluids enter from different ends of the exchanger, they circulate through the unit in opposite directions.
This type of flow is commonly used and is called a counter flow or just counter stream.
If the two fluids enter from the same end of the exchanger and flow in the same direction from one end to the other, the flow is called parallel streams.
|Products||Code||Catalogue||Tender specs||Manuals Simple||Video|
|ABSORPTION DESORPTION PLANT||DL CH11|
|COMBINED CHEMICAL REACTOR||DL CH12|
|CONTINUOS DISTILLATION||DL CH13|
|GAS PURIFICATION||DL CH14|
|LIQUID - LIQUID EXTRACTION||DL CH15|
|SOLID - LIQUID EXTRACTION||DL CH16|
|PLANT FOR THE STUDY OF EROSION-CORROSION||DL CH17|
|HEAT EXCHANGERS||DL PH02|