Fluid mechanics » Fluid mechanics didactic simulators

Fluid mechanics is the study of the behavior of fluids under the action of applied forces. Typically, we are interested in finding the power necessary to move a fluid through a device, or the force required moving a solid body through a fluid. The speed of the resulting motion, and the pressure, density and temperature variations in the fluid, are also of great interest. As we look around, we can see that fluid flow is a pervasive phenomenon in all parts of our daily life. In engineering applications, understanding fluid flow is necessary for the design of aircraft, ships, cars, propulsion devices, pipe lines, air conditioning systems, heat exchangers, clean rooms, pumps, artificial hearts and valves, spillways, dams, and irrigation systems. It is essential to the prediction of weather, ocean currents, pollution levels, and greenhouse effects. Not least, all life-sustaining bodily functions involve fluid flow since the transport of oxygen and nutrients throughout the body is governed by the flow of air and blood. Fluid flow is, therefore, crucially important in shaping the world around us, and its full understanding remains one of the great challenges in physics and engineering. Beside theoretical considerations, experiments and simulations are heavily used in research and De Lorenzo, to highlight some principles of fluid dynamics, has developed a large number of simulators and also demonstrators such as series and parallel pump demonstration unit, hydrostatic bench, Venturi effect and cavitation, hydrostatic pressure on submerged surfaces, metacentric height, dead weight calibrator, determination of viscosities and resistance coefficients, forced vortex, Pascal’s law demonstration, properties of fluids, hydraulic group unit, axial fan module, centrifugal fan, hydrodynamic channel, computerized water hammer, centrifugal pump demonstration unit, sedimentation tank, autonomous Pelton, Francis and Kaplan turbines, sedimentation studies apparatus and water cooling tower. All the latter three autonomous turbines are equipped with a computerized electrical brake type. They are recommended for professional institutes, vocational schools and technical colleges.

Products Details

SERIES AND PARALLEL PUMP - DEMONSTRATION UNIT

This trainer has been designed in order to practice many of the steps involved in the start up, operation phases and necessary regulation in a pump installation.
One of the pumps of the system is controlled by a variable frequency drive, which allows the variation of the rotation speed.
The flow rate is measured by electronic flowmeter. In addition, it is possible to analyze the characteristics of different types of pumps such as a single operating, in group, in series or in parallel configuration performing a wide range of practices and tests.
Pumps are controlled by an inverter, so speeds can be changed and monitored by flow meter.
All control and parameter readings are done by a computer included in the unit, which has automatic or manual data capture.
A test can be programmed and the computer can operate automatically modifying the parameters and capturing data.
TRAINING OBJECTIVES
• Start up of a pump, analysis and study of related aspects.
• Pump priming.
• Checking the direction of rotation
• Over current produced in the pump motor.
• Study and obtaining of the characteristic curves of a pump:
- Height – flow (H-Q)
- Power – flow (P-Q)
- Performance – flow (ƞ-Q)
- Mechanical power – flow (Pm-Q)
- Motor performance – flow (ƞe -Q)
- Electric power– flow (Pe -Q)
- Total performance – flow (ƞ -Q)
• Study of cavitation and obtaining the characteristic curves of NPSH required flow.
• Study of different ways to regulate a pump.
Checking affinity laws.
• Variation of pump rotational speed and obtaining new curves.
• Changing the operating point varying the pumping installation.
• Adjusting the discharge valve • Bypass usage
• Analysis of similar pumps and different pumps running in group
• Characteristic curves : in-series operation.
- Height - flow ( H- Q)
- Power - Flow (P- Q)
- Performance - Flow (ƞ - Q)
• Characteristic curves: in- parallel operation.
- Height - flow (H- Q)
- Power - Flow (P- Q)
- Performance - Flow (ƞ - Q)
TECHNICAL DATA
Inner diameter:
• Suction piping
- Inner Ø = 45.2mm
- Outer Ø = 50mm
• Discharge piping
- Inner Ø = 34mm
- Outer Ø = 40mm
Tank:
• Capacity : 250 liters
Manometers:
• Electric pressure by transducer –1 a 7 bar // -10.33 M WC to 70 M WC
• Electric pressure by transducer –1 a 4 bar // -10.33 M WC to 40 M WC (x3)
Pump features:
• Maximum manometric head: 23 M WC
• Maximum flow rate: 160l/min at 10 M WC
• Power consumption: 750W
• Motor speed: 2.900rpm
Other elements:
• Electronic flow meter
• Load cell : 5 Kgs
• Wattmeter: 0-1200W
• Frequency inverter
• Computerized system with data acquisition with software(integrated computer with touch screen)

DL DKL031

HYDROSTATIC BENCH

This didactic bench is suitable for the study of the main characteristics and properties of static fluids.
It is composed of several accessories for the demonstration and study of the hydrostatic tests.
The system is supplied with a practical manual which explains all the theoretical fundamentals and the mathematic formulas used for the realization of the experiments.
SCOPE OF EXPERIMENTS
- Density measures
- Pascal law demonstration
- Study and demonstration of capillarity principle
- Viscosity determination experiment
- Pressure measures
- Manometer calibration
- Archimedes' principle
- Buoyant stability force
- Pressure, potential and kinetic force
- Pressure on submersed objects
- Meta-central height
TECHNICAL DATA
Tank:
• Storage capacity: 50 liters
Densities:
• Volume pycnometer: 50ml
Densimeters:
• From 700 to 800
• From 800 to 900
• From 900 to 1000
• From 1000 to 1100
• From 1100 to 1200
• From 1200 to 1300
• From 1300 to 1400
• From 1400 to 1500
• From 1500 to 1600
Capillarity:
• Glass tubes:
• Inner diameters: 17.3mm , 5 mm , 2.1 mm ,1.4mm
Manometer:
• Barometer
• 600mm water column
• 600mm mercury column*
• 1,000mm mercury column.
Absolute pressure*
• Adjustable lean angles: 15, 30, 45° and 90°
Extras:
• Electronic weight scale
• Falling ball viscometer:
• Ø4 mm
• Ø5 mm
• Ø7 mm
• Ø8 mm

DL DKL013

VENTURY EFFECT, BERNOULLI AND CAVITATION

The objectives of these experiments are the study of the Venturi effect, from the conception of the Venturi theorem, to observation and practical uses.
The applicable uses are found in the industry, agriculture, leisure, etc.
Another objective to study is the cavitation phenomenon, it is also possible to change the pressure conditions in the inlet tank, and therefore, it is possible to study different flows and pressures.
TRAINING OBJECTIVES
• Venturi theorem demonstration of with a Venturi tube.
• Pressure loss calculation of in a Venturi tube.
• Flow determination with the utilization of the static volumetric system.
• Diaphragm calibration and utilization to determine the flow value.
• Identification and utilization practical applications of the Venturi effect:
- Utilization as a suction pump for liquids mixture; industrial applications, fertilizer and water mixture for irrigation etc.
- Mixture of water and air; hydro-massage.
- Use Venturi tube as a flow meter.
• Study of cavitation, by identifying the pressure, temperature and flow levels in which it is produced.
• Decreasing the pressure inside the tank to obtain cavitation phenomenon and observe new conditions.
TECHNICAL DATA
Inner diameters:
• Main piping:
- inner diameter = 21.2mm
- outer diameter = 25mm
Pressure test points:
• The system features quick fittings with double closure.
Pressure gauges:
• Six columns water gauge, measure range 0.6 m.
• Digital differential pressure gauges (± 7000mbar).
• Include Bourdon manometer, measure range 0 / 25m water column.
• Bourdon vacuum gauge, measure range: -76 cm Hg/ 25 m water column.

DL DKL061

HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE ON SUBMERGED SURFACES

The objective of this trainer is the study and the calculation of the pressure force acting on a submerged surface.
It is a simple and completely autonomous equipment that can be located anywhere in the laboratory without any installation.
Liquids of different densities can be used to determine the different exerted forces.
It is a stand-alone equipment with the possibility to determine the exerted pressure on flat and curved surfaces.
Surface's angle can be varied according to the required experiment.
TRAINING OBJECTIVES
• Measurement and verification of the momentum created by the pressing force acting on a submerged flat vertical surface.
It is necessary to determine both the magnitude of the force and its pressure center, according to :
- a complete submerged surface.
- a partially submerged surface.
• Obtaining and verifying the momentum created by the pressure force acting on a submerged curved surface.
It is necessary to determine both the magnitude of the force and its pressure center, according to :
- a semicircular sector completely submerged.
- a semicircular sector partially submerged, fluid level above the center of gravity.
- a semicircular sector partially submerged, fluid level below the center of gravity.
TECHNICAL DATA
Motor pump:
• Max flow rate: 400 l/h
• Max height: 60cm
• Power: Pump + headlamp = 18W
• Power consumption: Pump + headlamp= 1.6A
Quadrant:
• Inner Ø: 100mm
• Outer Ø: 200mm
• Width: 50mm
Counterweights: Set composed of
• 1x 10 g, 2x 20 g, 1x 50 g, 1x 100 g, 2x 200 g, 1x 500 g, 1x 1000 g
Surfaces to be studied:
• Readings on flat and curved surfaces.
Measurement of forces:
• Balancing forces are measured by momentum.
Dimensions:
• Methacrylate tank: 380 x 200mm.
Employed materials:
• Methacrylate • Aluminum
• Polyethylene

DL DKL101

METACENTRIC HEIGHT

Archimedes' principle indicates that the upward buoyant force that is exerted on a body immersed in a fluid, whether fully or partially submerged, is equal to the weight of the fluid that the body displaces.
This trainer is intended for the study and determination of the metacentric height of a floating body, which acts like a ship.
The intersection point between the vertical axis and with the vertical line from the center of the hull it is called Metacentre. Metacentric height is the distance from the metacentre to the gravity center of the floating body.
In the study of the equilibrium of a floating object, such as a boat , three cases have to be distinguished:
• Stable equilibrium: If the metacentre is above the center of gravity, it will remain in equilibrium.
• Unstable equilibrium: If the metacentre is below the center of gravity, there is a deviation between the vector of the floating object and the buoyant force of the fluid in which it floats, making some tilting, and thus the deviation tends to increase.
• Neutral equilibrium: If the metacentre matches with the center of gravity, the metacentric height is equal to zero.
It is possible to perform calculations in different situations so to clearly understand the Archimedes' principle and the stability of a floating object.
Moreover the position of the center of gravity of the floating object can be changed moving the calibrated rulers to control the position of the weights and to check directly the inclination angle of the barge.
TRAINING OBJECTIVES
• Calculation and study of metacentric height of a floating object.
• Study of the Archimedes' principle.
TECHNICAL DATA
Barge:
• External dimensions: 350 x 200 x 100mm
• Wall width: 6mm
Weights:
• Movable horizontal counterweight: 500g
• Movable vertical weight on the mast: 200g For each supplied equipment, the mass of the weights is calibrated.
Further information:
• Maximum angular deviation: 33°
• Counterweight linear deviation: ±90mm
• Barge total weight: ca. 2.300g
• Mast height: 400mm

DL DKL102

DEAD WEIGHT CALIBRATOR

The objective of this trainer is the study and calibration of pressure gauges, as well as viewing and understanding of their functioning.
It is an autonomous equipment with no water supply requirement.
The gauge is transparent in the front for didactic purposes.
Moreover it features a hydraulic cylinder for pressurizing the circuit.
It is manually actuated with a wheel.
It can work also with a digital gauge (not supplied),
TRAINING OBJECTIVES
• Gauges calibration.
• Principle of manometer operation.
• Pascal's principle.
TECHNICAL DATA
• Measurement range: 0-250kPa
• Weights (weight/ quantity)
- 1/1
- 0.5/3
- 0.1/4
• Bronze hydraulic cylinder body
• Stainless steel piston. Weight: 120g

DL DKL131

DETERMINATION OF VISCOSITIES AND RESISTANCE COEFFICIENTS

The objective of this trainer is the study and determination of the viscosity of different liquids, and the resistance coefficients of various geometric shapes.
It is a flexible system which can be used both for the study of fluid properties and for the particle resistance coefficients.
It is an autonomous didactic trainer that requires only an electric socket.
TRAINING OBJECTIVES
• Determining the viscosity of liquids.
• Determining of the resistance coefficient for spheres as a function of Reynold's number.
• Determining of the resistance coefficients of different bodies.
• Determining of the resistance coefficient for different geometric shapes.
TECHNICAL DATA
Pipes:
• Pipe Ø = 100 mm. ;Length 1.350 mm.
• Length between marks : 1.000 mm.
Spheres:
• Steel: Ø 3 mm, Ø 4 mm, Ø 5 mm,Ø 6 mm, Ø 7 mm, Ø 8 mm,Ø 9 mm, Ø 10 mm
• Polyamide:
• Ø 3.96 mm, Ø 5 mm, Ø 6 mm, Ø 7.14 mm, Ø 9 mm, Ø 9.52 mm

DL DKL141

FORCED VORTEX

The objective of this trainer is the reproduction and study of a paraboloid generated in a liquid when it is subjected to a uniform rotation.
The system is simple and it does not require any special installation.
It can be easily placed in the laboratory.
Liquids of different densities can be used to determine the influence in the formation of the parabolic curve.
TRAINING OBJECTIVES
• Study of a paraboloid curve generated by a liquid subjected to uniform rotation.
• Study of the changes in the generated paraboloid curve by changing the speed rate.
TECHNICAL DATA
Tank:
• Material: methacrylate.
• Dimension of the cylinder: Ø200 x 275 mm.
• Inner diameter of the cylinder: Ø194mm.
Accessories:
• Distance meter (horizontal axis) with precision a hundredth of a millimeter.
• Vertical height meter with every 10mm latching.
Motor:
• DC motor M17-0.50-ID5-E6-A
• Torque: 0.50Nm
• Current: 1.5A
Other features:
• Digital programmable control
• Photoelectric detector
• Speed regulator

DL DKL151

PASCAL’S LAW DEMONSTRATION

This didactic trainer is designed for the study and demonstration of the law of Pascal.
This law was enunciated by the physicist and mathematician Blaise Pascal (1623-1662), and states that the pressure exerted anywhere in a confined incompressible fluid is transmitted equally in all directions throughout the fluid such that the pressure variations (initial differences) remain the same.
Furthermore, with this system it can be studied the hydrostatic paradox, which is a consequence of the Pascal’ law: the pressure within the liquid at rest depends only on the depth of water, regardless of the amount."
There are many applications based on the law of Pascal, one of the best known it is the hydraulic press.
TRAINING OBJECTIVES
• Study and demonstration of Pascal's Law.
TECHNICAL DATA
Set of containers:
• Maximum depth of the glasses: 228mm
• Parallel glass: Ø26mm
• Conic glass A
- Superior Ø: 101mm
- Inferior Ø: 26mm
• Conic glass B
- Superior Ø: 9mm
- Inferior Ø: 26mm
Membrane
• Membrane Ø: 56mm

DL DKL281

PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS

Equipment designed for studying the properties of fluids.
TRAINING OBJECTIVES
• Measurement of densities using gauges.
• Measurement of densities using a pycnometer.
• Study and demonstration of the capillary in tubes.
• Study and demonstration of the capillary between plates.
• Viscosity determination.
• Measure of atmospheric pressure using an anaerobic barometer.
• Archimedes’ law.
TECHNICAL DATA
• Aluminum structure with phenolic resin panels.
• Density gauges:
- Density range 0.600 – 0.700 with 0.01 scale
- Density range 0.650 – 1.000 with 0.005 scale
- Density range 1.000 – 2.000 with 0.005 scale
• Thermometer: from -10°C to +60°C
• Electronic precision balance: 500g x 0.1g
• Gay-Lussac pycnometer: 50ml
• 600 ml glass
• 1 liter test tube (glass)
• Falling ball viscometer: inner Ø= 32mm large= 450mm (x2)
• Steel ball:
- Ø1.58 (1/16)
- Ø2
- Ø3
- Ø3.175 (3/32)
• Plastic test tube: 250ml
• Dynamometer: 1kg x 5gr

DL DKL301

HYDRAULIC GROUP

The purpose and design of this hydraulic group is to act as an autonomous portable and economic unit of hydraulic power.
It is possible to use this didactic hydraulic group for laboratory tests.
Many exercises can be performed without depending on the availability of a single hydraulic bench unit.
TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION
- Storage tank with cap in order to prevent dirt from entering into the water
- Overflow chamber to prevent air from entering into the circuit
- Pressure outlets of the pump for the performance of practical tests
TECHNICAL DATA
Tank:
Material: Polypropylene
Capacity: 45 liters
Accessories: made of PVC
Pump:
Maximum gauge head: 23 M WC.
Volume 10 / 160 l/min
H 21 / 10 M WC.
Power consumption: 750W (1HP)
Max power: 950W
Motor speed: 2.900 rpm

DL DKL011

CENTRIFUGAL PUMP DEMONSTRATION UNIT

With this equipment, it is possible to study and understand the features of a centrifugal pump.
The unit allows also the possibility to determine the capacity efficiency of the centrifugal pump. TRAINING OBJECTIVES
• Study of the basic principle of separation of solids in suspension by sedimentation tanks.
• Visualize and study the process of sedimentation in a continuous basis in a settling tank.
TECHNICAL DATA
Pump
Type: Centrifugal pump
Maximum head: 9 m H2O
Maximum flow: 120 LPM
Circulation Tank Cylindrical
Transparent tank Volume : 15 L
Pressure gauge
Delivery side: 0 to 1.2 bar
Suction side : ‐1 to 1 bar
Rota meter Size: 1”
Range: 0 to 150 LPM
Digital Instrumentation
2 units of digital indicator,
1 unit of electronic flow meter,
2 units of pressure sensor
TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION
The system is supplied with:
• Operating and Experiment Manuals in English giving full descriptions of the unit, summary of theory, experimental procedures and typical experimental results
• Data acquisition system and software utility

DL DKD063

SEDIMENTATION TANK

This trainer has been designed for the study and visualization of the natural phenomenon of sedimentation, in continuous operation.
Particles are denser than the fluid containing them and they fall to the bottom of the tank because of the gravity effect. Sedimentation process is used to clarify all types of waters, decreasing their turbidity.
The system includes a supply of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) to be used as additive. In addition, the mixing tank has a stirrer to prevent the sedimentation of the suspension.
TRAINING OBJECTIVES
• Study of the basic principle of separation of solids in suspension by sedimentation tanks
• Visualize and study the process of sedimentation in a continuous basis in a settling tank
• Determination of sedimentation process efficiency for:
- Different solids concentrations
- Different flow rates
- Different positions of the baffle plate
- Different depths of the baffle plate
• Display and study the current lines for:
- Different solids concentrations
- Different flow rates
- Different positions of the baffle plate
- Different depths of the baffle plate
TECHNICAL DATA
Sedimentation tank:
• Material: Methacrylate transparent
• Capacity: 80l approx.
• Dimensions: 1000 x 400 x 200mm
Suspension tank:
• Material: Fiberglass
• Capacity: 120l approx
• Continuous mixing system
Other features:
• Anodized aluminum framework
• Flow control performed by a pressure control system
• Recirculation pump. H =20 + 160 m; Q =21 + 10l/h;
• P =0.75 kW. Ideal for dirty water
• 2x Imhoff cones, 1 liter capacity.
Cleaning brush included
• 2x 1 liter beakers / 1x 2l breaker
• Injection ink system for better experiment visualization.
• Suspension and spoon material included
• Teacher and student experiment notebook included
TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION
According to the characteristics of the suspension (heterogeneous mixture of dispersed solid particles in a fluid), particles can settle down in different ways depending on their density, their concentration in the solution and the density and viscosity of the fluid in which are spread.
The sedimentation tank has a lower mixing section in which a suspension is prepared by adding the additive whose sedimentation can be studied.

DL DKA022

AXIAL FAN MODULE

This equipment has been designed for the study of the characteristics of an axial fan granting the possibility to perform wide range of exercises.
The system has a digital speed display to show the working speed of the fan and a control module to regulate the speed.
Moreover, the pressure transducers of the system can sense the working pressure at each observed point and they can show the results in the relevant digital displays improving the practical experience.
TRAINING OBJECTIVES
• Study and obtaining the characteristic curves of an axial fan.
- Static pressure – flow rate (DPs - Q)
- Total pressure – flow rate (DPt - Q)
- Power - flow rate(P - Q)
• Study of regulating an axial fan by varying its rotational speed.
• Pitot tube usage. Difference between static, dynamic and total pressure.
• Obtaining the flow speed profile in the suction pipe.
• Flow measure by the Pitot tube usage.
TECHNICAL DATA
Inner diameters:
• Suction and discharge piping
- Inner Ø = 114mm
- Outer Ø = 120mm
Manometers:
• Pressure transducer ±100 Pascal.
• Pressure transducer 0/100 Pascal.
Fan features:
• Pressure increase: 1000 Pascal
• Maximum flow volume: 500m³/h
• Motor power rated :90W
• Motor speed: 9.500 rpm -158Hz
Other elements:
• Digital speed display
• Speed adjustment by potentiometer
• Pitot tube Ø 4mm
Dimensions:
• 1100 x 350x 620mm

DL DKL071

CENTRIFUGAL FAN

This system has been designed to grant an easy and effective study of a centrifugal fan and its characteristics, conducting a wide range of experiments.
The trainer is supplied with two different impellers (forward and backward inclined blades) that can be easily exchanged. It is possible to control the motor rotation using a 3-positions knob.
TRAINING OBJECTIVES
• Study and obtaining the characteristic curves of a centrifugal fan with straight vanes.
- Static pressure – flow rate (DPs-Q)
- Total pressure – flow rate(DPt-Q)
- Power – flow rate(P-Q)
- Performance – flow rate (-Q)
• Study and obtaining the characteristic curves of a centrifugal fan with inclined forward vanes.
- Static pressure – flow rate (DPs-Q)
- Total pressure – flow rate(DPt-Q)
- Power – flow rate(P-Q)
- Performance – flow rate (-Q)
• Study the regulation of a centrifugal fan by varying its rotational speed and obtaining new characteristic curves according to speed.
• Pitot tube usage. Difference between static, dynamic and total pressure.
• Obtaining the flow speed profile in the suction pipe.
• Flow measure by the Pitot tube usage.
TECHNICAL DATA
Inner diameters:
• Suction and discharge piping
- Inner Ø = 114mm
- Outer Ø = 120mm
Fan features:
• Pressure increase: 700Pa
• Maximum flow volume: 1,000m³/h
• Power consumption: 250W
• Motor speed: 2.810rpm at 50Hz
Manometers:
• Vertical manometer 100 mm WC
• Pressure transducer 50mm WC
Other elements:
• Variable frequency drive
- Motor rated power: 0.37kW
- Input fuse maximum current capacity: 10A
- Input current draw (full load): 5.8A
- Output current RMS 100%: 2.2A
- Overload current at 150% (during 60s): 3.3A
- Minimum brake resistance value: 68 Ω
• Power indicator: 0-400W
• Pitot tube Ø3mm and 200mm length.
• Supplied impellers:
- forward inclined blades
- backward inclined blades
TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION
A Pitot tube can measure the air velocity at any point of the tube showing its values on a digital display. Vertical and inclined gauges allow a correct reading of the pressures.
The inverter allows the speed variation and, at the same time, it is possible to observe the electric power consumption by means of a power meter.
Through a conical cap placed in the air outlet, it is possible also to induce an adjustable load loss and study the fan operating points.

DL DKL072

AUTONOMOUS PELTON TURBINE – COMPUTERIZED ELECTRICAL BRAKE

The trainer can simulate a small scale Pelton turbine, especially designed for educational purposes.
The turbine housing is partially transparent so that it can be viewed the turbine operation driven by the water inertia.
The water jet propels the turbine through the recoil principle.
The system includes also a built-in regulating valve at the water inlet which grants the possibility to work with different flows.
The braking system through the electric brake allows the functioning at different revolutions.
The turbine works autonomously thanks to the system complete of water tank, pump and all necessary instruments based on a movable trolley.
TRAINING OBJECTIVES
• Characteristic of the curves of the turbine:
- Torque - speed (M -n).
- Brake power – rotational speed (Pe-n).
- Performance – rotational speed (ƞ- n).
- Torque - U (M- U).
- Brake power - U (Pe-U).
- Performance - U (ƞ-U).
• Curves of Iso-yield.
TECHNICAL DATA
Brake Type:
• Electric brake
Turbine
• Type: Pelton.
• Number of fins: 16
• Impeller diameter: 124 mm
• Bucket depth: 14 mm
• Jet diameter: 10 mm
• Shaft diameter: 16 mm
• Rated speed: 1.900 rpm
Framework
• The system is made of an aluminum structure with tank and pump where the necessary turbine flow is generated.
Electronic components:
• Pressure transducer
• Differential pressure gauge
• Tachometer
• Load cell for torque
• Data-acquisition board
Accessory:
• Computer with software
TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION
This computerized system allows to display the inlet turbine pressure, the flow rate, the braking torque and all variables on the integrated workstation

DL DKH041

AUTONOMOUS FRANCIS TURBINE – COMPUTERIZED ELECTRICAL BRAKE

The system can simulate a small scale Francis turbine, especially designed for educational purposes.
It can study the behavior and the characteristics of this type of turbine.
The turbine housing is partially transparent so that the turbine operation driven by the water flow and movement of the guide fins for the inlet flow regulation of the turbine can be observed.
The trainer includes also a built-in regulating valve at the water inlet allowing the possibility to work with a different flow. The electric braking can grant the working at different speeds.
The turbine works autonomously thanks to the system complete of water tank, pump and all necessary instruments based on a movable trolley.
TRAINING OBJECTIVES
• Characteristic curves of the turbine:
- Torque - speed (M -n).
- Brake power – rotational speed (Pe-n).
- Performance – rotational speed (ƞ- n).
- Torque - U (M- U).
- Brake power - U (Pe-U).
- Performance - U (ƞ-U).
• Curves of Iso-yield.
• Joint performance, turbine- electric generator.
• Study and acquisition the characteristic curves of a centrifugal pump.
• Acquisition of the overall performance of a pump station.
TECHNICAL DATA
Brake Type:
• Electric brake
Turbine characteristics:
• Type: Francis
• Impeller material: bronze
• Impeller diameter 80mm
• Turbine weight: 15kg
• Number fixed fins: 10
• Number of the guide fins: 6 (from 0 to 100% adjustable)
• Power: 100W
• Rated speed: 4,000rpm
Framework
• The system is made of an anodized aluminum structure, with a 130 litres' tank and a pump where the necessary turbine flow is generated
Electronic components:
• Pressure transducer
• Differential pressure gauge
• Tachometer
• Load cell for torque
• Data-acquisition board
TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION
This computerized system allows to display all variables on the integrated workstation

DL DKH042

AUTONOMOUS KAPLAN TURBINE – COMPUTERIZED ELECTRICAL BRAKE

The system can simulate a small scale Kaplan turbine. It is especially designed for the study and the demonstration of the behavior and the characteristics of this type of turbine.
The turbine housing is partially transparent so that the turbine operation driven by the water flow and the inlet guide fin for flow regulation can be observed.
The impeller fins of the turbine are adjustable so the pitch angle can be manually modified.
The turbine works autonomously thanks to the system complete of water tank, pump and all necessary instruments based on a movable trolley.
TRAINING OBJECTIVES
• Characteristic curves of the turbine:
- Torque - speed (M -n)
- Brake power – rotational speed (Pe-n)
- Performance – rotational speed (ƞ- n)
- Torque - U (M- U)
- Brake power - U (Pe-U)
- Performance - U (ƞ-U)
• Curves of Iso-yield.
TECHNICAL DATA
Brake Type:
• Electric brake
Turbine
• Type: Kaplan
• Number fins: 4
• fins angle: manually adjustable
• Guide fins
Framework
• The system is made of an anodized aluminum structure, with a 130 litres' tank and a pump where the necessary turbine flow is generated
Electronic components:
• Pressure transducer
• Differential pressure gauge
• Tachometer
• Load cell for torque
• Data-acquisition board
Accessory:
Computer with software
TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION
This computerized system allows to display all variables on the integrated workstation.

DL DKH044

HYDRODYNAMIC CHANNEL

This trainer has been designed for the study of the behavior of fluids in open channels.
Characteristics:
• Autonomous operation, it only requires a power outlet.
• Possibility to create a negative and positive slope of the channel.
• Various elements of reading, gauge intakes, level meter, Pitot tube, etc.
• Wide range of accessories for the study of multiple phenomena.
TRAINING OBJECTIVES
It is possible to perform several experiments in the following knowledge areas:
• Study of flow through open channels, measuring variables such as:
- Water height.
- Speed at different points of a cross section.
• Study of uniform flow, gradually varied flow and behavior of surface profiles.
• Study and use of thin edged weir to measure flows.
- Rectangular weir without lateral contraction.
• Study and use of broad crested weir to measure flows.
- Rectangular weir
- Triangular weir
• Study and utilization of the Venturi channel.
• Analysis and study of the flow under sumps.
- Vertical gate.
- Radial gate.
• Study of hydraulic jump.
• Flow analysis on dam spillways.
TECHNICAL DATA
Gauges:
• Multi-column pressure gauge for pressure readings located beneath the channel.
Working section
• Height/ width: 300/80mm
• Length: 2500mm
Centrifugal water pump
• Power: 1.1 kW (1.5 HP)
• Max. flow: 24m³/h
• Maximum manometric head: 14.3m M.WC.
Flow meter:
• Electronic flow meter with display.
Included accessories
• Four-column pressure gauge.
• Pitot tube and level meter.
• Thin edged wall weir without contraction.
• Vertical gate.
• Radial gate.

DL DKL051

COMPUTERIZED WATER HAMMER

This trainer has been designed for the visualization and the study the phenomenon of water hammer.
It is possible to study the effects on a surge tank where there is a decrease in the over pressure/ under pressure generated by the water hammer.
The system is set for the observing and the testing of the pressure increase produced by the variation of the flow rate through a valve: it allows the observation of positive and negative water hammer produced by the sudden shut of a valve.
It is supplied with a computer, a printer and a software for the registration and printing of the results coming from the various practices.
TRAINING OBJECTIVES
• Study and visualization of the pressure increase produced by the variation of the flow through a valve.
• Study and visualization of the phenomenon of water hammer produced by the instantaneous closing of a valve.
• Study and visualization of the phenomenon of water hammer produced by the sudden stop of a pump.
• Study and display of the effects on a surge tank in mitigating water hammer.
• Determining the speed of sound through water a pipe.
• Determining the losses in a pipe.
TECHNICAL DATA
PIPES:
• PVC pipe inner Ø= 28.4 mm, thickness= 1.8 mm and length= 3 m.
• Copper pipe inner Ø= 26 mm, and thickness= 1 mm and length= 3 m.
PRESSURE TRANSDUCERS
• 3x absolute pressure transducer 0-10 Bar.
• 2x absolute pressure transducer 0-16 Bar.
• 1x absolute pressure transducer 0-5 Bar.
COMPUTERIZED SYSTEM
• Data acquisition module.
• Computer with software included.
• Printer.
VALVES
• 1" brass valve.
• Pneumatic quick-closing valve (requires compressed air).
• NOTE: Valves are interchangeable between the 2 pipes.
SURGE TANK
• 1.7 meters surge tank.

DL DKL091

SEDIMENTATION STUDIES APPARATUS

This trainer has been conceived for the study and the demonstration of the natural phenomenon known as sedimentation: the particles contained in a fluid, fallen by gravity, are collected at the bottom of a tank.
Sedimentation is used to clarify all water reducing turbidity.
Depending on the characteristics of the suspension (heterogeneous mixture of dispersed solid particles in a fluid), the particles can settle in different ways depending on their density, their concentration in the solution and the density and viscosity fluid in which they are dispersed.
TRAINING OBJECTIVES
With this equipment, students can perform several experiments:
• Study of the characteristics and determination of sedimentation's curves of the same suspension with different solids concentrations.
• Influence of the density of a solid in the speed of sedimentation.
• Influence of density and viscosity of the liquid in the speed of sedimentation.
• Particle size distribution. Features of the sedimentation of solids of the same density and sizes of a different particle.
• Study of variation of the initial height in the speed of sedimentation.
• Study of the use of flocculants. Coagulation-flocculation.
• Comparing characteristics of sedimentation of different suspensions.
TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION
The system consists of 5 glass tubes placed in a graduated support with a backlit panel structure.
it is possible to see through this system, the sedimentation process and its intermediate steps, so that the sedimentation speed can be measured.
The trainer is supplied with 5 beakers of 250 ml and a 2-liter jug where suspensions can be prepared and then they can be poured into the tubes.
Tubes can be extracted from their site to be able to agitate them until obtaining a homogenous dissolution of the aggregated solids.
TECHNICAL DATA
• Anodized aluminum structure.
• 5 removable glass tubes of 1000mm length and 51 mm internal diameter.
• 10 caps with locking mechanism.
• 5 fluorescent lamps.
• Translucent, graduated and backlit rear panel
• Waterproof stopwatch up to 10m resolution 1/100 s.
• 5 beakers of 250 ml.
• 2 liters' jug
• 50 ml pycnometer.
• Precision balance maximum weight = 410 g / Accuracy = 0.1 g.
• Weight 200 g, for the calibration of the balance periodically
• Dimensions: Height 1,230 x Width 800 x Length 620 mm.

DL DKT063

Download Area

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