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Digital-To-Analogue Converters

This board allows the study of the operating principle and of the main characteristics of a digital-to-analogue converter.
The board is composed of 3 independent sections:
• a weighed resistances discrete components D/A converter
• a discrete components D/A converter in a R-2R network
• a monolithic 11 bit D/A converter
While the first two sections are used to highlight the operating principle of two different D/A converters, the third one is used to analyse the operating modes and the characteristics of the converters that are commercially available.
The board is supplied complete with a set of stackable, plug-in cables of suitable lengths and colours and with a training manual.
Power supply: ± 15 Vdc, 200 mA and + 5Vdc, 200mA
Experiments
• Analysis of the operation of a weighed resistances converter
• Analysis of the operation of a converter in a R-2R network
• Analysis of the conversion errors
• Analysis of the operation and of the main characteristics of a monolithic converter

DL 2155DAC

Analogue-To-Digital Converters

This board allows the study of the operating principle and of the main characteristics of analogue-to-digital converters.
The board is divided in 2 sections: in the first one a discrete component realization is provided of a ramp A/D counter converter, while in the second section there is a monolithic converter.
The first section is used to highlight the operating principle of an A/D converter, while the second one is mainly used to analyse the operating modes and the characteristics of the converters that are commercially available.
The board is supplied complete with a set of stackable, plug-in cables of suitable lengths and colours and with a training manual.
Power supply: ± 15 Vdc, 100 mA and + 5Vdc, 200mA
Experiments
• Analysis of the operation of a counter converter
• Analysis of the operation and of the main characteristics of a monolithic converter
• Analysis of the conversion errors

DL 2155ADC

Switching Power Supplies

During the latest years the switching power supplies technology has been significantly developed due to the features of smaller size and higher efficiency of these power supplies when compared to the traditional ones.
This board is basically composed of two sections:
• a BJT‐based flyback power supply, with output voltage adjustable from 12V to 18V by means of a potentiometer and rated current 0.5A
• a MOSFET‐based feed‐forward power supply, with output voltage adjustable from 15V to 18V by means of a potentiometer and rated current 0.5A Both power supplies are provided with a current limiting circuit and with a shut‐down device to switch off the voltage from the load without deactivating the power supplies control circuits. This board also includes resistive loads of different values for the detection of the output characteristics.
The board is supplied complete with a set of stackable, plug‐in cables of suitable lengths and colours and with a training manual.
Power supply: 24Vac,1A,50/60Hz.
Experiments
• Analysis of the operation of a flyback power supply
• Analysis of the operation of a feed‐forward power supply
• Regulation of the output voltage as a function of the load or of the input voltage
• Limitation characteristics
• Detection of the typical parameters of the power supplies (ripple voltage, efficiency, etc.)

DL 2155AC

Thyristors, Triacs and their Applications

This system has been designed in 3 boards to allow both the theoretical and the practical study of thyristors and triacs for what concerns the control techniques and their typical applications within the control systems.

DL 2316

Power and Control Board

It allows the autonomous study of the thyristors in the main single‐phase bridge circuit confi guration (semi‐  and totally‐controlled) and in the ac/ac converters as well as the study of the triac in the control of the alternating voltage and in the controlled rectifi cation. The power section includes: 4 thyristors, 1 triac, 4 diodes, 1 fl ywheel diode and 1 ohmic‐inductive load.  
The control section allows the realization of: proportional control, on‐off control or phase control, both on the positive and negative semiwave.
Furthermore, there is a potentiometer for the manual control of the devices activation. The board is supplied complete with a set of stackable, plug‐in cables of suitable lengths and colours and with a training manual.
Power supply: 24Vac,1A,50/60Hz
Experiments
• SCR control with alternating voltage synchronous and in phase with the anode voltage
• SCR control with alternating voltage synchronous and in phase with the anode voltage supplying the gate with and without flywheel diode
• Half‐wave rectifiers with ohmic‐inductive load with and without flywheel diode
• Half controlled single‐phase rectifier bridge (B2HZ)
• Half controlled single‐phase rectifier bridge with (B2HKF) and without (B2HK) flywheel diode
• Fully controlled single phase rectifier bridge
• Control of full‐wave rectification with ohmic load and with ohmic‐inductive load
• Half‐wave ac/ac converter
• Full‐wave ac/ac converter
• Triac control in quadrant I
• Triac control in quadrant III
• Mains alternating voltage regulation
• Pulse train control
• Triac controlled rectifier

DL 2316A

Light and Temperature Control

This board contains two independent systems, for the control of the light and of the temperature respectively, each one complete with reference block, error amplifi er, transducer and actuator.
Together with the DL 2316A board, that contains the power circuits complete with relevant piloting, it is possible to realize an open and closed loop control both of the lighting system (24V, 15W lamp and photoresistor) and of the heating system (47 Ω, 25W heating element and integrated circuit sensor).
The board is supplied complete with a set of stackable, plug-in cables of suitable lengths and colours and with a training manual.
Power supply: ± 15Vdc, 100mA
Experiments
• DC operated lamp
• AC operated lamp
• Full-wave triac control
• Proportional control

DL 2316B

Speed and Position Control

This board contains two independent systems, for the control of the position and of the speed respectively, each one complete with reference block, error amplifi er, transducer and actuator.
Together with the DL 2316A board, that contains the power circuits complete with relevant piloting, it is possible to realize an open and closed loop control both of the position system (geared motor coupled to a potentiometer) and of the speed system (variable load generator dc motor with optical transducer associated to an F/V converter).
The board is supplied complete with a set of stackable, plug-in cables of suitable lengths and colours and with a training manual.
Power supply: ± 15Vdc, 100mA
Experiments
• Thyristor bidirectional converter
• Open-loop operation
• Closed-loop operation half-controlled bridge
• Closed-loop operation fully-controlled bridge

DL 2316C

Temperature Control

This system has been designed for the study of a model of a temperature industrial control; it is composed of two boards.

DL 2155RGT

Temperature Basic Control

This board includes a small oven with a heating element and three temperature sensors (thermocouple, thermistor, and thermo-resistance) with relevant interface circuits.
Complete with error amplifier that can be confi gured for on-off or proportional control, and with a piloting circuit of the power stage with triac.
The board is supplied complete with a set of stackable, plug-in cables of suitable lengths and colours and with a training manual.
Power supply:
24Vac, 1A, 50/60Hz and ± 15Vdc, 100mA
Experiments
• V = f(t°) characteristics of a thermocouple, with relevant
linearization, of the thermistor and of the thermoresistance • Analysis of the operation of an on-off control
• Analysis of the operation of a proportional control

DL 2155RGT1

Advanced Temperature Control – PID Controller

This board includes two reference signal generators, a comparison node and the three terms network (proportional, integral and derivative).
Complete with digital temperature indicator 100mV/°C.
This board is an option to the board DL 2155RGT1 since it uses its oven, the heating element and the temperature transducers.
The board is supplied complete with a set of stackable, plug-in cables of suitable lengths and colours and with a training manual.
Power supply: ± 15Vdc, 100mA and +5Vdc, 150mA
Experiments
• Analysis of the operation of a proportional, proportional-derivative and proportional-integral control
• PID control circuits
• PID controllers calibration

DL 2155RGT2

Speed Control of a DC Motor

This board has been designed to highlight the speed control techniques of a direct current motor.
The board is basically divided in two sections: the first one allows the study of the open loop speed control, while the second section deals with an actual closed loop speed control of the system.
The group under test, composed of a motor, a dynamometer and a speed optical transducer, is placed on the board.
The board is supplied complete with a set of stackable, plug‐in cables of suitable lengths and colours and with a training manual.
Power supply: 12Vac, 2A, 50/60Hz and 15Vdc, 300mA Experiments
• Study of open loop and closed loop speed control systems
• Analysis of the static and dynamic operation of an open loop controller
• Analysis of the static and dynamic operation of a closed loop controller
• Measurement of the speed through an optical   transducer connected to a F/V converter or through a tachogenerator

DL 2155RGM

Step Motor Control

This board is designed to provide a valid support for the study of the operation and of the application criteria of these important electromechanical components. It allows the students performing study and experimentation concerning the driving of a step motor, unipolar or bipolar.
The rotation can be performed with increments of a single step or with continuity, at a variable speed.
Position and direction are indicated by a disk.
An LCD display allows showing the number of steps, the number of turns, the rpm, the rotation direction and the selected parameters of the controller.
Technical Features
• Step angle: 1.8°
• Number of phases: 4
• Max. power: 16 W
• Sense of rotation: reversible
• Current/phase max: 1.5 A
• Variable frequency from 20 Hz to 500 Hz through potentiometer
Power supply: 90/260 Vac, 50/60 Hz
Experiments
• Analysis of the operation of a step motor
• Analysis of the control criteria and of the power modules
• Full step or half step
• Variable speed rotation control
• Inversion of the rotation direction
• Study of an incremental position encoder

DL 2208

Process Simulator with PID Control

This system has been designed with the objective of providing the student with a simple, although effective tool for the simulation and the control of physical systems through the identifi cation of the mathematical model, the defi nition of the parameters and the calibration of the control network. The system is composed of two boards.

DL 2330

Experiments
•Analysis and simulation of linear processes
• Open and closed loop control of linear systems
• Behaviour of the control system against fixed or time variable disturbances
• Steady state error
• System with two time constants
• Calibration of a control system and criteria for the optimum setting of the PID parameters
• Transfer function of the PID controllers
• Method of permanent oscillation
• Method of damped oscillations
• Experimental study of the PI controller
• Experimental study of the PD controller
• Experimental study of the PID controller
• Analysis and study of typical non linear elements
(saturation, threshold, hysteresis)

Process Simulator

This board is basically structured in two sections:
• a linear process simulation, with two summing amplifi ers, three blocks with proportional, integral, derivative transfer functions, offset and drift generators
• a hysteresis non‐linear simulation, dead band and threshold
It includes a digital voltmeter.
The board is supplied complete with a set of stackable, plug‐in cables of suitable lengths and colours and with a training manual.
Power supply: ± 15Vdc, 300mA

DL 2330A

PID Controller

This board is basically structured in two sections:
• variable frequency square and triangular wave reference signal generation
• three terms regulator with variable parameters and two summing amplifier
It includes a digital voltmeter.
The board is supplied complete with a set of stackable, plug‐in cables ofsuitable lengths and colours and with a training manual.
Power supply: ± 15Vdc, 300mA

DL 2330B

Power Electronics Board 

This board allows the study of several power electronics circuits, as detailed here under.
Technical Features
The following components are available on the board:
• Diodes for circuit M1U, M2U, M3U, M6U
• SCR for circuit M1C, M2C, M3C, M6C
• H bridge with MOSFET
• Pulse generator for SCR control
• Generator for H bridge control (PWM)
• Function Generator
• Three-phase generator (12 Vpp)
• Single-phase source (12 Vpp)
Built-in power supply.

DL 2317SR

Motor Board 

Universal speed control system. • With integrated four-quadrant display
• With variable centrifugal mass
• Dual-channel encoder
• Built-in four-quadrant amplifi er Technical features
• Linear H bridge to have full motor control
• Dual optical sensor for speed and direction
• Main Motor/Generator 12 V, 3000 rpm, 1.2 A, 3.2 Ncm
• Load to be connected to the secondary Motor/Generator
• Shunt to limit and measure the current.

DL 2317SR

Experiments - DL 2317SR
• Single-phase uncontrolled rectifier M1U and B2U
• Single-phase controlled rectifier M1C and B2C
• Three-phase, single wave, uncontrolled rectifier B3U
• Three-phase, single wave, controlled rectifier B3C
• Three-phase, full wave, uncontrolled rectifier B6U
• Three-phase, full wave, controlled rectifier B6C
• Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) circuit to control direct current
• PWM to control a motor with a H bridge
• PWM on H bridge to understand the principle of inverter
Experiments ON THE DC SUPPLY
• Basic pulse width modulation (PWM) circuits
• PWM with H-circuit, DC-evaluated
• PWM with H-circuit, sine-evaluated
Experiments WITH THE GTO (GATE-TURN-OFF)
• Firing pulse conditioning for the GTO
• The GTO as a DC actuator

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ProductsCodeSheetTender specsManualsVideo
ELECTRONICS INSTRUMENTATION
DIGITAL TO ANALOGUE CONVERTERSDL 2155DAC
ANALOGUE-TO-DIGITAL CONVERTERSDL 2155ADC
SWITCHING POWER SUPPLIESDL 2155AC
THYRISTORS, TRIACS AND THEIR APPLICATIONSDL 2316
TEMPERATURE CONTROLDL 2155RGT
SPEED CONTROL OF A DC MOTORDL 2155RGM
STEP MOTOR CONTROLDL 2208
PROCESS SIMULATOR WITH PID CONTROLDL 2330
POWER ELECTRONICS BOARDDL 2317SR
MOTOR BOARDDL 2318SR