Automatic Control Technology

Automation » Automatic Control Technology

Automatic control technology is a wide generic term covering the operation and regulation of processes without continuous direct human intervention and this laboratory has been designed to introduce the fundamentals.

The end user has the possibility to perform the control of variables such as temperature, light, level, flow and DC motor in different ways as PID, open-loop, closed-loop, continuous and discontinuous. Its architecture is very simple and modular allowing the final user to both learn the concepts in a simple way and to create new ones.

Beside this trainer we have realized a compact board that can be possible to study the processes and the controllers in only one unit complete with data acquisition and processing software developed in LabView environment.

It is recommended for high schools and first years of university.

Products Details

Processes - PRO

This laboratory is designed to study and to analyze the typical behaviors of the processes: the transfer characteristics, the behavior in transitory conditions, the time constants, the 1st and 2nd order processes, the higher order processes, the dead time, etc.
The knowledge of the typical characteristics of the process is extremely important for a correct approach to the design of a control system.
For such reason, before studying the typical behaviors of the controllers, it is necessary to analyze all the possible characteristics that the process to be controlled can practically have. The processes that can be analyzed in this configuration is the following:
• P type process
• I type process
• I 2 type process
• 1st order processes
• Processes of order highest than the 1st
• 2nd order
Industrial type components are educationally adapted by using a modular panel system to permit the step by step assembling from the simplest circuit to the most complex system.
The laboratory is supplied complete with a theoretical and practical manual.

Processes - PRO

Controllers - PID

This laboratory is designed to study and to analyze the characteristics and the typical behaviors of the controllers: linearity, proportionality, dynamic behavior, gain, conventional values, critical frequency, phase, etc. After having analyzed the single P, I and D elements, students is able to study their PI, PD and PID combinations and he can set up both series and parallel configurations.
The knowledge of the typical characteristics of the controllers is extremely important for a correct approach to the design of the control systems.
This trainer has a modular structure and it consists of didactic panels installed on a vertical frame. It is supplied with a theoretical and practical manual.
The modularity of this didactic system can give the students a direct and immediate approach to the topics, offering the opportunity to study various subjects, performing several experiments as following:
· P Controller
· I Controller
· D Controller
· PI Controller
· PD Controller
· PID Controller
· PID controller with gain and offset regulation

Controllers - PID

Continuous Automatic Control - CAC

This laboratory is designed to study processes and controllers suitably combined to simulate and to study the most common problems related to the Continuous Automatic Control. The analysis of the interactions between controllers and processes is complicated by the possible presence of noise; sometimes, the latter can trigger a series of oscillations with consequences, potentially serious, for the process. In this configuration, the student can study the causes of the above mentioned instabilities, in order to find possible solutions.
This trainer has a modular structure and it consists of didactic panels installed on a vertical frame. It is supplied with a theoretical and practical manual. The modularity of this didactic system can give the students a direct and immediate approach to the topics, offering the opportunity to study various subjects, performing several experiments as following:
• P control of a P type process
• P control of 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th order processes
• I control of 2nd order and I type processes
• P, PD, PI and PID controls of a high order process: stability and optimization
• P, PD, PI and PID controls of a high order process: presetting of the parameters according to ZieglerNichols (dynamic method)
• P, PD, PI and PID controls of a high order process: presetting of the parameters according to ChienHrones-Reswick (static method)
• P, PD, PI and PID controls of a high order process: parallel and series configuration

Continuous Automatic Control - CAC

Discontinuous Automatic Control - DAC

This laboratory is designed for the study of Discontinuous Automatic Control systems where the controller is composed of a an element with discontinuous intervention. A discontinuous controller is characterized by an output having two or more fixed states and its value is switched among these states according to the input value.
This trainer has a modular structure and it consists of didactic panels installed on a vertical frame. It is supplied with a theoretical and practical manual. The modularity of this didactic system can give the students a direct and immediate approach to the topics, offering the opportunity to study various subjects, performing several experiments as following:
• Two position controllers, three range controllers
• Sampling acquisition techniques
• The two position controller in a 1st order process
• The three range controller in a 2nd order process
• The two position controller with delayed feedback in a 2nd order process
• The two position controller with elastic feedback in a 2nd order process
• The sampling control in a 4th order process

Discontinuous Automatic Control - DAC

Control of a DC motor - MOT

This laboratory is designed for the study of Control of a DC motor to allow the student a practical training, based on the performance of guided experiments. Industrial type components must be educationally adapted by using a modular panel system to permit the step by step assembling from the simplest circuit to the most complex system.
This trainer has a modular structure and it consists of didactic panels installed on a vertical frame. It is supplied with a theoretical and practical manual. The modularity of this didactic system can give the students a direct and immediate approach to the topics, offering the opportunity to study various subjects, performing several experiments as following:
• P, PI and PID controls of the speed of a DC motor using the CHR method
• Control of a DC generator

Control of a DC motor - MOT

Temperature control - TEM

This laboratory is designed for the study of the temperature control application to allow the student a practical training, based on the performance of guided experiments. Industrial type components are educationally adapted by using a modular panel system to permit the step by step assembling from the simplest circuit to the most complex system.
• With this laboratory it is possible to perform the following experiments:
• The two position controller in the temperature process
• The two position controller with delayed feedback in the temperature process
• The two position controller with elastic feedback in the temperature process
• The three range controller in the temperature process
• P, PI and PID controls of the temperature process using the CHR method
The laboratory is supplied complete with a theoretical and practical manual.

Temperature control - TEM

Light Control - LUM

This laboratory is designed for the study of the Light Control application to allow the student a practical training, based on the performance of guided experiments. Industrial type components are educationally adapted by using a modular panel system to permit the step by step assembling from the simplest circuit to the most complex system.
This trainer has a modular structure and it consists of didactic panels installed on a vertical frame. It is supplied with a theoretical and practical manual. The modularity of this didactic system can give the students a direct and immediate approach to the topics, offering the opportunity to study various subjects, performing several experiments as following:
• P, PI and PID light controls using the CHR method

Light Control - LUM

Level Control - LEV

This laboratory is designed for the study of the Level Control Application to allow the student a practical training, based on the performance of guided experiments. Industrial type components are educationally adapted by using a modular panel system to permit the step by step assembling from the simplest circuit to the most complex system.
This trainer has a modular structure and it consists of didactic panels installed on a vertical frame. It is supplied with a theoretical and practical manual. The modularity of this didactic system can give the students a direct and immediate approach to the topics, offering the opportunity to study various subjects, performing several experiments as following:
• Pump’s features
• Measurement system’s features
• Level process features
• Level control with adjuster P
• Level control with adjuster PI
• Level control with adjuster PID
• Level control with a 2 position controller

Level Control - LEV

Flow control - FLO

This laboratory is designed for the study of Flow control application to allow the student a practical training, based on the performance of guided experiments. Industrial type components are educationally adapted by using a modular panel system to permit the step by step assembling from the simplest circuit to the most complex system.
This trainer has a modular structure and it consists of didactic panels installed on a vertical frame. It is supplied with a theoretical and practical manual. The modularity of this didactic system can give the students a direct and immediate approach to the topics, offering the opportunity to study various subjects, performing several experiments as following:
· Measurement system’s features
· Analysis of flow control features

Flow control - FLO

Automatic Control Technology

This laboratory has been designed to introduce the fundamentals of automatic control technology. The main functions of processes, controllers and controlled systems are shown on a simulated controlled system, as well as the interactions between the transfer elements of a control loop.
Before dealing with the experimental part, the manual offers to the students the synthesis of the basic concepts relevant to the automatic control in order to develop to the best experimentations of this laboratory. The theoretical topics described in the manual are:
- General Definitions
- Graphical representation of control systems
- Subdivision of control systems
- Canonical form of systems driven back
- Canonical functions and characteristics of control systems
- Analysis and design of control systems
- Proportional action (P)
- Integral action (I)
- Derivative action (D)
- PID combined action
- Preparing the Controller
The individual components are represented on the panels together with the standard block circuit diagrams.
The laboratory has been functionally divided in a number of sections, so that the student can follow a proper educational path, with increasing difficulties from theory to practical applications. The sections have been set up as follows:
Fundamentals of Automatic Control Technology
Processes PRO
Controllers PID
Continuous Automatic Control CAC
Discontinuous Automatic Control DAC
Applications
Control of a DC motor MOT
Temperature control TEM
Light control LUM
Level control LEV
Flow control FLO

ACT TOT

Board for the study of the automatic control technology

The board covers the following topics and experiments:
• 1st order process simulator
• 2nd order process simulator
• High order process simulator
• PID controller
• P controller positive and negative
• I controller (integrators)
• D controller (derivators), negative (negative zero)
and positive (positive zero)
• 5 input adder
• ON-OFF controller with hysteresis
SIMULATED CONTROLLED SYSTEM
• It allows the simulation of different processes, such as: 1st and 2nd order processes, proportional (P) action processes, integral I) action processes, double integral (I2) action processes.
• Input summing point for controlling variable (y) and noise variable (z).
• Signal voltage range: -10V, ..., +10V
• Coefficient of the proportional action of the process
• KP = 0.2 (attenuation) ....1.5 (amplification)
• Time constant T1 = 0.1 .... 1000 s
• Time constant T2 = 0.1 .... 1000 s
• Reset input for the restoration of the initial conditions
• Coarse setting through rotary switches
• Potentiometer fine setting
• Led indicators of over-range
PID CONTROLLER
• Standard industrial controller that can be used as P, PI,PD or PID controller in the closed loop automatic control systems.
• Input summing node for two different reference variables UR and UC and for one controlled variable UA.
• Signal voltage range: -10V .... +10V
• Parameters of the controller continuously adjustable
• Proportional gain Kp = 0 ... 1000
• Time of the integral action TI = 1ms ... 100s
• Time of the derivative action TD = 0.2ms ... 20s
• Reset input of the integral controller
• Output summing node to add or subtract noise variables
• Measurement terminal for the error signal
• Adjustment screw for the output offset
• Three led indicator of the sense of deviation
• Coarse and fine adjustment of the proportional gain Kp, of the time of the integral action TI and of the time of the derivative action TD
• Input Ioff for resetting the I controller
TWO POSITION CONTROLLER
• Two position controller for discontinuous closed loop control systems.
• It is provided with an input summing point to which the reference variable (non inverting input) and the controlled variable (inverting input) are connected.
• By means of two led the binary state of the controller,whose hysteresis can be changed, is visualized.
• The controller is provided with two binary outputs at different voltages.
• Input summing point
• Signal voltage range: -10V, ..., +10V
• Output voltages: 0/+5 V ; 0/+10 V
• Adjustable hysteresis: 0 .... ± 2.5 V
P CONTROLLER
• Proportional action controller suitable for the closed loop continuous control systems.
• Signal voltage range: -10V, .... , +10V
• Proportional gain Kp = 0 ... 100
• Three position switch coarse setting
• Potentiometer fine setting
AUTOMATION SECOND ORDER TRANSFER ELEMENT
• It allows to analyze the behaviour of an element with proportional transfer function able to oscillate, with a delay of the second order, both in the time domain and in the frequency domain.
• Signal voltage range: -10V, ..., +10V
• Gain factor = 1
• Time constant T = 10 ms .... 30 s, selectable through two rotary switches
• Damping coefficient d = 0 .... 3, with potentiometer setting
• Reset input for the restoration of the initial conditions
• Led indicators of over-range SUMMING POINT - 5 INPUTS
• Five input summing point; three of them, non inverting, can be used in the realization of particular configurations of the controller, using separately the elements P, I and D; the remaining inputs, one inverting and one non inverting, can be used to add the noise variables.
• Signal voltage range: -10V, ..., +10V
• Gain factor = 1
• Led indicator of over-range
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS
• P-type process
• I-type process
• I2-type process
• 1st order process
• Higher than 1st order process
• P controller
• I controller
• D controller
• PI controller
• PD controller
• PID controller
• P control, P-type process
• P control, 1st and higher order processes
• 2nd order I control, I-type processes
• Ziegler-Nichols dynamic method
• Chien-Hrones-Reswick static method
• 2 position controller, 1st order process
• 2 position controller, delayed feedback, 2nd order process
• 2 position controller, elastic feedback, 2nd order process
OPTION
On request, the board can be provided complete with data acquisition and processing software in Labview environment.
The software will guide students to the performance of the experiments and will process the data to draw the relevant graphs. The software (DL ACTSW) needs an interface for connection to the board (DL 1893).

DL 26ACTR

DL 26ACTSW

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ProductsCodeSheetTender specsManualsVideo
PROCESSESPRO
CONTROLLERSPID
CONTINUOS AUTOMATIC CONTROLCAC
DISCONTINUOS AUTOMATIC CONTROLDAC
CONTROL OF A DC MOTORMOT
TEMPERATURE CONTROLTEM
LIGHT CONTROLLUM
LEVEL CONTROLLEV
FLOW CONTROLFLO
AUTOMATIC CONTROL TECHNOLOGYACT TOT
ACT MODULES
BOARD FOR THE STUDY OF THE AUTOMATIC CONTROL TECHNOLOGYDL 26ACTR